Специфические слова и выражения русских классиков XIX века: опыт контрастивного корпусного исследования
The paper presents the results of a quantitative study that identifies characteristic and specific low-frequency words for the prose of Russian classic writers of the XIX century. TF-IDF measure and a large collection of the XIX century texts by Turgenev, Goncharov, Leskov and Dostoevsky were used to identify words and phrases that are rarely found or not found in other authors’ works, but appear several times in the prose of the classic writers. This contrastive approach is able to complement the traditional author’s lexicography, to identify the specific features of a particular author’s style against the background of the contemporary language. Writer-specific words and phrases have foreign language origin or come from the reality contemporary to the writer. Words identified for Turgenev, Leskov and Dostoevsky correlate well with the stylistic peculiarities of these writers. At the same time, the revealed vocabulary of Dostoevsky once again underlines his historical and literary connection with Gogol and provides new data for philological analysis, which can lead to finding evidence that the author of the “Great Pentateuch” was familiar with Pyotr Kropotkin’s works.
The article presents the history of the Longman dictionary that has become a bestseller all over the world. Revealing the translation of the lexicographic idea into practice, the author tells us about the scholarly disputes that accompanied the development of the principles of a new type of English dictionary.
The meaning of the Greek hapax legomenon "λιμβίς" has been specified with the help of its Church Slavonic translation "grivьna" (necklace).
The paper continues research into words denoting everyday life objects in the Russian language. This research is conducted for developing a new encyclopedic thesaurus of Russian everyday life terminology. Working on this project brings up linguistic material which leads to discovering new trends and phenomena not covered by the existing dictionaries. We discuss derivation models which gain polularity: clipped forms (komp < komp’juter ‘computer’, nout < noutbuk ‘notebook computer’, vel < velosiped ‘bicycle’, mot<motocikl ‘motorbike’), competing masculine and feminine con- tracted nouns derived from adjectival noun phrases (mobil’nik (m.) / mo- bilka (f.) < mobil’nyj telefon (m.) ‘mobile phone’, zarjadnik (m.) / zarjadka (f.) < zarjadnoe ustrojstvo (n.) ‘AC charger’), hybrid compounds (plat’e- sviter ‘sweater dress’, jubka-brjuki ‘skirt pants’, shapkosharf ‘scarf hat’, vilkolozhka ‘spork, foon’). These words vary in spelling and syntactic behav- iour. We describe a newly formed series of words denoted multifunctional objects: mfushkaZ< MFU < mnogofunkcional’noe ustrojstvo ‘MFD, multi- function device’, mul’titul ‘multitool’, centr ‘unit, set’. Explaining the need to compose frequency lists of word meanings rather than just words, we of- fer a technique for gathering such lists and provide a sample produced from our own data. We also analyze existing dictionaries and perform various experiments to study the changes in word meanings and their comparative importance for speakers. We believe that, apart from the practical usage for our lexicographic project, our results might prove interesting for research in the evolution of the Russian lexical system.
The article presents in chronological order the replenishment of Russian lexicography with the dictionaries of jargon at the end of the 20th century – the beginning of the 21th century. The author analyses the most famous dictionaries of general jargon for the purpose of finding words and word combinations belonging to the youth sociolect. As exemplified by concrete dictionary entries, the article shows the advantages of each lexicographic source described and specifies their role in the analysis of the youth jargon.
This paper sets out to review current approaches to world Englishes from a range of perspectives, from English studies to sociolinguistics, applied linguistics, lexicography, ‘popularizers’ and critical linguistics. It then proceeds to consider current debates on English worldwide and world Englishes, noting the recent criticisms of the world Englishes approach from a rhetoric of a critical linguistics ironically at odds with the realities of many educational settings.
The article is dedicated to the loanword tagash as attested in Russian historical lexicography and etymology, and its paronimical attraction with the Turkic word tugash. The open access to the text cannot be provided due to copyright restrictions.
The paper is focused on the study of reaction of italian literature critics on the publication of the Boris Pasternak's novel "Doctor Jivago". The analysys of the book ""Doctor Jivago", Pasternak, 1958, Italy" (published in Russian language in "Reka vremen", 2012, in Moscow) is given. The papers of italian writers, critics and historians of literature, who reacted immediately upon the publication of the novel (A. Moravia, I. Calvino, F.Fortini, C. Cassola, C. Salinari ecc.) are studied and analised.
In the article the patterns of the realization of emotional utterances in dialogic and monologic speech are described. The author pays special attention to the characteristic features of the speech of a speaker feeling psychic tension and to the compositional-pragmatic peculiarities of dialogic and monologic text.