Rationality of Life Insurance Behavior under Economic Uncertainty.
Uncertain economic situations like shock, crisis, and fall impact significantly on the personal investments, main of them are life insurance and savings. Taking into account the importance of precautionary life insurance and savings as the future buffers due to current ambiguity, it is essential to understand individuals’ behavior regarding to the economic uncertainty. This article studies macroeconomic, social, and insurance indicators and its impact life insurance in Russia. We found the supportive arguments both rational and irrational customers’ actions. The justification of discovered contradictory life insurance behavior lies on the bounded or local rationality and its assumptions that can be useful to the participants of insurance markets, policymakers.
Despite efforts to curb tobacco use, global tobacco addiction remains as strong as ever. Smoking rates are declining very slowly in advanced countries, and they are increasing in the developing world. Yet, researchers still do not fully understand what drives smoking decisions. Life-Course Smoking Behavior presents smoking trajectories of different generations of women and men from ten of the world's most visible countries, with nation-specific representative samples spanning more than eighty years of recent history. To inspire hypotheses on the determinants of smoking behavior, the authors place these data in economic, political, social, and cultural contexts, which differ greatly both across countries at a particular time and over time in a given country. Though significant research has been conducted on smoking statistics and tobacco control policies, most descriptions of smoking behavior rely on cross-sectional "snapshot" data that do not track individuals' habits throughout their lifespan. Lillard and Christopoulou's work is a unique and necessary text in its comparative life-course approach, making it a long overdue complement to the existing literature.https://global.oup.com/academic/product/life-course-smoking-behavior-9780199389100?q=life-course%20smoking%20behavior&lang=en&cc=ru#
The monograph is devoted to the problems arising in the analysis of demographic processes, the calculation of net rates and assessment of reserves in the major life insurance contract. The results of studies involving various related parties of the analyzed issues. For example, given a detailed comparative analysis of pre- and disadvantages of organization of the insurance market in Russia and abroad. With used - vaniem various techniques built a ranking of countries in terms of development of the market under study.
The basis of actuarial calculations in the basic life insurance contracts are demo graphic processes: in particular, information about the mortality rate. The foundation for the construction of a net rates and valuation reserves in the life insurance contract is the data of mortality tables, which are based, in turn, is an indicator of how Vero die before reaching next age interval. In this regard, the authors present the theoretical aspects of the construction of the net rates and valuation reserves in life insurance contracts. The paper discusses methods of constructing mortality tables , raised the problem of statistical analysis of demographic processes in actuarial calculations, an overview of the basic formulas used to derive the net rates and valuation reserves in life insurance contracts.
The authors of the classification of the Russian Federation in terms of economic and demographic character. Some representatives of the obtained clusters The results of the study of the dynamics of demographic processes. It analyzes the main trends in life expectancy at age and sex and the regional context.
Of course, the authors have paid special attention to the analysis of the impact of demographic, financial factors on change of the tariff policy of life insurance contracts, as well as the impact on the rate and size of the allowance conditions of the contract. The research data for the city of Moscow as a financial and information center of Russia, which significantly affects the development of the insurance market as a whole (not only in the life insurance sector).
The results of these studies may be interested in a wide range of professionals in the field of economics, actuarial calculations in life insurance analysts.
This chapter gives an overview of the evolution of explanatory models of the fundamentals of human motivation throughout the last century: from the concepts of instinct and drive to basic needs, and from the lists of biologically rooted needs to the discovery of non-biological, social, and existential imperatives to human behavior. The integrative model, proposed by the author, distinguishes three qualitatively different levels of individual-world relationships: the biological existence, the social existence, and the personal existence. Objective meta-necessities inherent in each level (including the actualization of potentialities and relating to the environment; social belongingness and integration; self-determination and autonomous choice) underlie special needs relevant to this particular level.
Supply chain management is rather new scientific field that reflects the concept of integrated business planning. This concept should be experts and practitioners in logistics and strategic management. Today, integrated planning to become a reality thanks to the development of information technology and computer technology. At the same time to achieve a competitive advantage is not enough high-speed, low-cost data transfer process. In order to effectively apply information technology tools necessary to develop a quantitative analysis of the effectiveness of supply chain management. The mam element of this tool are optimization models that reveal the complex interactions, the wave and the synergies that arise in supply chain management. In this article we consider one of the classes of such models - the so-called dynamic models of conveyor systems, processing of applications.
Uncertainty is a concept associated with data acquisition and analysis, usually appearing in the form of noise or measure error, often due to some technological constraint. In supervised learning, uncertainty affects classification accuracy and yields low quality solutions. For this reason, it is essential to develop machine learning algorithms able to handle efficiently data with imprecision. In this paper we study this problem from a robust optimization perspective. We consider a supervised learning algorithm based on generalized eigenvalues and we provide a robust counterpart formulation and solution in case of ellipsoidal uncertainty sets. We demonstrate the performance of the proposed robust scheme on artificial and benchmark datasets from University of California Irvine (UCI) machine learning repository and we compare results against a robust implementation of Support Vector Machines.
The paper focuses on the concept of ‘financial strategies’ and addresses two problems: first, how to define the concepts of financial strategy and strategizing, and second, how to operationalize them into indicators for empirical research. The introduction to this new concept is based on the conviction that strategizing (which is understood as a specific attitude to life held by people who do not live for the moment, think about their future even if it is rather uncertain, set long-term financial goals and act towards achieving them), is an intrinsic factor in the financial behavior of people. It is argued that it is not possible to define financial strategy or to operationalize it objectively and universally since people operate in very different circumstances; i.e. in different institutional environments or at different stages of life, etc. The solution must be found in the interactionist sociological perspective with the emphasis on the construction of the interpretation of a situation: how individuals themselves make sense of financial strategizing in their own environment, the options they perceive and the constraints they feel.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.