Проблема вовлеченности детей и подростков в криминальные субкультуры в зарубежных исследованиях
The article is dedicated to the review of child and adolescents’ gang involvement problem in
contemporary studies. The analysis of multiple indicators of gang involvement among adolescents from
different countries is also made. Different types of offences carried by gang members in different countries
are reviewed. Risk factors of child and adolescent gang involvement are also studied.
Developmental risk refers to conditions, characteristics, experiences, or situations with potentially deleterious effects that lead to outcomes later in life that do not meet societal expectations. While risk is typically framed as the statistical probability of a problematic outcome in relation to the general population, the converse notion of well-being is considered in relation to the level of functioning at a given developmental stage. The contributors to this volume provide insight into developmental well-being by examining the ways that culture and context affect outcomes associated with various types of risk, such as those related to oppression, academic performance, family background, life history, physical health, and psychiatric conditions. Even though certain outcomes may seem inevitable in cases involving harmful environments, diseases, and disorders, they are virtually all influenced by complex interactions among individuals, their families, communities, and societies.
ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to consider digit ratio (2D:4D: a putative marker of prenatal testosterone and estrogen levels) and aggression in a sample of 1,452 children and adolescents (mean age 13.6 years) from five regions of Russia. The 2D:4D was calculated from direct measurements of the fingers, and aggression scores were obtained from completed Buss and Perry (J Pers Soc Psychol 63 (1992) 452–459) aggression questionnaires. The 2D:4D demonstrated significant sexual dimorphism, with lower 2D:4D in boys in all regions. Physical aggression scores were highest in boys, but verbal aggression, anger and hostility were highest in girls. The highest right hand 2D:4D in boys was found in the most northerly population (Central Russia Region). Our data revealed small, but highly significant negative correlations between right 2D:4D, right–left 2D:4D (DR-L) and self-ratings on physical aggression in boys, but not in girls. These relationships remained after considering Russian ethnics only, and controlling for region. We suggest that the associations may be due to sex differences in prenatal androgen secretion. Am J Phys Anthropol 152:130-139, 2013. VC 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
The paper uses the data of the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Study to analyze the change in the state of health of the Russian population in the post-Soviet period. Age is regarded as a factor with a potential to influence incidence of chronic disease, disability and self-preservation behavior. The authors stress the importance of such factors of health deterioration as smoking and alcohol consumption.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.