Медиакарнавал в эпоху глобализации
This paper analyzes one of the most apparent characteristics of modern global media, namely an increased share of media content highlighting various entertainments: sporting events, royal weddings, rescue actions, beauty contests and the like. The audience for such shows amounts to billions of viewers actively involved in what they see on the screen. Another characteristic of our time is that the social and media space has been flooded with games of all kinds. The scale of these processes gets one thinking about the causes of these events, the possible scenarios for development and the models of attitude to them. Drawing on the theoretical analysis of the existing approaches, the author presents his own concept of carnival culture, examines the characteristics of the carnivalization of reality in an era of globalization and mediatization. The paper concludes that the growing transformation of modern society generates in people increasing existential anxiety about their place in the changing world. A lack of answers to basic questions leads to an urge to lose oneself in a mass ecstatic experience. The author predicts that the further information and technological development of mankind will be accompanied by mass unemployment and, subsequently, an increase of free time in citizens living on social security. It might be reasonably suggested that they will focus on playing games. These games are likely to model the world of bright life, rich in sex and aggression, wherein people will find an opportunity to destroy robots and monsters and to assume any carnival shape without being responsible for their actions, especially when hidden behind a masquerade mask.
Souvent considéré comme une activité des plus nuisibles, le piratage des contenus audiovisuels n’en constitue pas moins, depuis des décennies, pour de nombreuses populations aux quatre coins du monde, un moyen majeur d’accéder aux produits des industries culturelles. Nourri d’enquêtes de terrain, cet ouvrage explore les enjeux que recèle ce phénomène complexe. Cette étude inédite analyse les stratégies globales de lutte contre le piratage, évalue les politiques des autorités nationales, décrit les usages que font les publics des contenus audiovisuels piratés, retrace les chemins qu’empruntent ces derniers et s’intéresse à ceux qui font le commerce de ces produits, de même qu’aux mutations engendrées par internet en la matière.
Yearbook World of Media has been being published since 2009. It represents an annual review of original researches in the field of media and journalism studies conducted by Russian authors from diverse cities and institutions.World of Media is aimed at promoting the development of Russian media and journalism studies in both national and global contexts, and stimulating a wider public interest in the journalism theories, methods, findings and applications generated by research in communication and allied fields. Yearbook World of Media is affiliated with National Association of Mass Media Researchers (NAMMI).
World of Media is published in the English language.
L’objectif de ce chapitre est d’expliquer le phénomène du piratage audiovisuel en Russie. Nous essayerons d’identifier les logiques qui le régissent dans le contexte de l’économie informelle et ses fonctions culturelles. Pendant les années 1990, les spécificités de la société russe – et, par conséquence, également, celles de son système médiatique – étaient expliquées par son caractère « en transition ». Ce genre d’approche sous-entendait que le processus s’achèverait par la mise en place de l’économie marchande, de la société civile et de la démocratie. Une bonne partie des chercheurs en communication, y compris certains chercheurs russes, ont ainsi cru pouvoir déceler l’installation, en Russie, d’un véritable marché des médias, connecté au marché global. Selon la même logique, les chercheurs en économie appréhen-daient le secteur informel voire semi-légal, y compris le piratage, comme un phéno-mène anormal ayant pour vocation de disparaître avec le développement de l’économie marchande. Dans ce sens, le piratage a souvent été représenté de façon univoque comme un moyen de rendre accessibles les produits culturels à une population n’ayant pas les moyens de les acquérir autrement. Nous allons ici essayer de démon-trer la nature mystificatrice d’une telle représentation et mettre en lumière les autres facteurs, en particulier culturels, qui expliquent le phénomène, ainsi que les rapports de force qui existent en son sein et les mutations qu’il connaît aujourd’hui.
This paper represents a synthesis of few working papers of the author, published in various mostly foreign publications. In the paper the author examines social consequences and social prerequisites for specific role that Russian state and Russian audiences are playing in the media. In our opinion the situation in Russian media cannot to be perceived outside the context of social structure of the Russian society and the role of the state in this society.
Author analyzed the world distribution of the key awards of 15 leading film festivals according to the FIAPF (fr. Fédération Internationale des Associations de Producteurs de Films) for all years of carrying out. It is not only the representation of the countries but the chronology and factors of it’s appearing among the winners. Certain Latin American award winners were examined through its plot. Also the films shot by directors-migrants are considered. The paper shows what images of countries and cities award winners translate to the world. Among the Latin American countries the majority of the awards was received by Brazil, Mexico and Argentina. The main town for the most outstanding movies of Brazil is Rio de Janeiro. The «Brazilian» plots are often developed also in the northeast of the country. In case of Argentina the action of the winner movies happens in Buenos Aires or just in certain «big city». Many Latin American movies are connected by the scene of action and a plot with a natural dominant of the region, the Amazon river. The authentic plots (highly valued by film festival juries) can be found in the works of migrant directors. One of the brightest Mexican winner movie was directed by Diego Quemada-Díaz, who migrated from Spain to Mexico. «The golden dream» narrates about three teenagers who goes from Guatemala to the USA.
The research is dedicated to the differences in visual representation of global fashion media brand Vogue, that can be reflected through the cultural specifics of the countries included in the study.
The research includes content as well as visual analysis (cover) of the Vogue issues, published in 2018 in six culturally different countries: USA, United Kingdom, Russian Federation, Australia, India and United Arab Emirates.
Within content analysis methodology the number of pages, the sections in issues as well as the amount of advertisement (both local and global) in issues were count.
Visual analysis included the perceived age and race of the model on the cover, the profession of the model as well as her or his pose and gestures. General saturation of covers with text was also evaluated.
As was supposed, the age of the hero on the cover may reflect the general ideas of the «age of active social life» in different counties, as well as it could be an indicator of the «cult of youngness» in some cultures.
We also supposed that Muslim traditions and culture may affect the visual representation of Vogue Arabia, which was shown in the absence of male characters on the cover page, mainly covered bodies on the pictures and lack of local heroes on the covers.
Thirdly, we supposed that the balance (or misbalance) between local and foreign heroes on the cover may be an indicator of the orientation on local or global agenda, as well as that countries with historically strong cultural industries (USA with Hollywood and India with Bollywood) will prefer local heroes on the covers.
The author teaches to awaken creativity in oneself, using emotions as a factor of motivation, explains the concept of critical thinking, gives the reader tools to add / edit publications to increase the clarity and rationality of their own judgments, and also shows where a particular theory is applicable
The primary ambition of this special issue of The Hague Journal of Diplomacy1 is to approach a certain segment of the diplomatic universe that has been heretofore overlooked, and yet one could argue it is also more than ever pertinent to the effort to understand geopolitical and cultural impacts on governance in contemporary diplomacy.2 The articles that form ‘Non-State Diplomacy from Non-Western Perspectives’ are foremost joined by their challenge to two prevailing tendencies in diplomatic studies scholarship: first, the interpretation of non-Western practices through a predominantly Western lens; and, following from this, that diplomatic action in these contexts is largely confined to state institutions. Each of the articles in this special issue applies exploratory lenses of ‘contextual discovery’ to recalibrate foundational developments in the current diplomacy scholarship through an empirical research conducted in non-Western countries.3 Each article offers fresh findings from non-Western contexts to enrich a growing body of literature that takes a ‘post-globalist’ approach to the study of diplomacy.4 In doing so, the scholarship embraces complexities of challenging co-existence among state and non-state actors in the field of international relations. Two years in the making, this special issue expresses our hope that — by drawing these perspectives into the light — we will be in a much better position to meet this non-state/non-Western phenomenon with a fuller appreciation of its manifestations.
Systems Thinking in Museums explores systems thinking and the practical implication of it using real-life museum examples to illuminate various entry points and stages of implementation and their challenges and opportunities. Its premise is that museums can be better off when they operate as open, dynamic, and learning systems as a whole as opposed to closed, stagnant, and status quo systems that are compartmentalized and hierarchical. This book also suggests ways to incorporate systems thinking based on reflective questions and steps with hopes to encourage museum professionals to employ systems thinking in their own museum. Few books explore theory in practice in meaningful and applicable ways; this book offers to unravel complex theories as applied in everyday practice through examples from national and international museums.