Судьба экспедиции И. Г. Гербера в контексте российско-казахских отношений начала 1730-х гг.
The article analyzes the relations of the Russian Empire and Kazakhs in the early 1730s, i.e. at the initial stage of joining of the Kazakh Little Horde to Russia. This period is characterized by uncertainty in the relations of Russia and Kazakh vassals and the absence of purposeful Russia’s policy in the Steppe. One of consequences of such approach was an assault of Kazakhs at the beginning of 1732 on the diplomatic mission of Russian Colonel J. G. Gaerber on the way to Khiva and Bukhara. At first, the Kazakh rulers assigned the blame for the assault to their unruly subjects, but then made themselves responsible for it. The author supposes that this episode was one of the reasons for the
intensifi cation of the imperial policy in Kazakhstan and resulted in the establishment of Orenburg Expedition that received broad powers to interact with the Kazakhs. Gradual integration of Kazakhs into the political and legal area of the Russian Empire was realized within the process of frontier modernization, which led to substantial changes in political and social system of Kazakh society.