ЭМОЦИОНАЛЬНАЯ БЛИЗОСТЬ: ФЕНОМЕНОЛОГИЧЕСКИЙ ОТКЛИК ИНТЕРСУБЪЕКТИВНОСТИ
Closeness is one of predictors of stability and satisfaction with romantic relationships. Despite the large number of studies intersubjective perspective on the phenomenon is not fully disclosed in the literature. In particular, few works are devoted to the dynamics of I providing this special kind of experience of pre-reflective connectedness among people. Based on the concept of the reflected agency of V. A. Petrovsky and on the principles of a new personology (V. A. Petrovsky, E. B. Starovoitenko), the article considers closeness as a special experience of connection with others, achieved through reciprocal representation of reflected agency (otherness, to which I do not want to resist). In accordance with the levels of reflected agency, three levels of closeness are described, and important aspects that constitute the phenomenon (risk, authentic expression of emotions, alternation of openness and delimitation in relationships) are revealed.
The article substantiates new direction of psychological studies of the personality which is called general personology. It was developed as a response to the gap existing in psychology of personality between theory, empirical studies, cultural and hermeneutical approaches, psychotherapy and reflection and self-development of personologists and all those involved into personological process. General personology is defined as the direction in studying personality integrating cultural, fundamental (theoretical and empirical), practical personology and personology of self-fulfilment. There is introduced the symbol notion “personology pyramid”. There are given examples of research approaches that are based on synthesis of knowledge and methods from different areas of general personology. There is studied the experience of building and conducting of personological study devoted to dialogical relation of I – beloved Other, conditions of its formation and interlinks with social positioning of personality. It is substantiated on theoretical, hermeneutical and empirical levels that dialogical nature of relation, in fact, is its fulfilment in dimensions between I-and-Beloved-Other, I-in-Beloved-Other, Beloved-other-in-I, I-in-Self, activity of personality’s living through each dimension, formation of internal social resource of personality. The study results are intended for psychological consulting practice and self-cognition of the personality in the context of relation with meaningful others.
The paper treats the issue of identity of the ego, which constitutes the central problem of personology. The skeptical approach to this problem, which sees it as not being subject to be resolved by means of science, began with D. Hume's work. Contemporary personologists (P. Ricoeur and others) approach this problem through study of culture, which imparts the ego with «narrative identity». Cultural historic psychology is a «Bridge of interpretations», upon which philosophy of culture meets psychology, and psychological data associated with «personality» are interpreted on the basis of some specific cultural philosophic theory. The «conflict of interpretations» plays and essential role in personology, which participates in the processes of emergence and overcoming of the cultural crisis. Philosophical and methodological problems that define the near term perspective development of personology are formulated: whether there are any «ego invariants» that remain regardless of any possible cultural determination; whether the ego possesses any rigidity in relation to cultural determination and, if it does, what is the nature of this rigidity; whether ego identity is destroyed when cultural determination diminishes or ceases, etc.
The collected papers of Kyiv international University Institute of Social and Political Psychology of NAPS of Ukraine presents the results of theoretical and methodological and experimental research in various fields of psychological science and practice. The authors of the book are the scientists, professors, doctoral students, graduate students, undergraduates, practice.
The purpose of the research is to substantiate the development of integral branch of modern psychology of personality which is defined as personology. The research stresses the need to change dominating analytical approaches to the study of personality for the synthetic approach defined as «science of synthesis». It will reflect multiple ties between different theories and consulting personality models; experience of creating a single semantic space for personality cognition; unity of theoretical, cultural and practical psychology of personality. This triple format of personology is focused on discovery and realization of self-cognition of the personality as well as personality of the personologist being the subject of hermeneutics, theoretical studies and practical activity. The research defines the subject of personology based on positions of synthesis as well as defines the foundation for integration of the personological knowledge, structure of personology, content, method and forms of interaction between cultural, fundamental and consulting psychology.
The work is devoted to the methodology of personological research using the idea (and models) of a significant life situation as a research principle. The methodology is described on the example of the study of the "unknown I". The questionnaire “My significant life situation” presented. The author’s hermeneutic models of the “unknown I” in a life situation which based on the texts of J.P. Sartre and S.L. Rubinstein provided in the article. Analysis of an individual case is shown.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.