Судебная система постсоветской России: социальный контекст
This article provides insight into the state of the judicial system in post-Soviet Russia within social context. It involves results of a survey of the attitude of the Russian citizens towards the judicial system and judiciary. Majority disapproval is determined by the fact that people do not respect or trust courts of law assuming that they are dependent on the other branches and influenced by other political and economic actors. They believe that the judges are not willing to protect citizens’ rights, are corrupt, unfair and inhumane, which determines the accusatory bias of the Russian judicial system. At the same time, Russian judiciary consists mainly of representatives of administrative and bureaucratic professional subculture focused on superior authorities and powers, most court chairpersons have Soviet professional training and experience. The Judicial system of post-Soviet Russia has inherited problems of Soviet justice and is incapable of acting in the social system as an impartial arbitrator and conscience of the state.
After the mass protests that took place in 2011–12 and the annexation of Crimea in 2014, all of the negative tendencies that have existed in Russia's judicial system became more prominent, while the few positive tendencies have largely disappeared. Acquittal has become even rarer than it already was, even as the courts' tendency to hand down sentences short of incarceration has been reversed.
Із традиційною свободою думки, саркастичной аргументовано Ричард Познер береться змалювати не тільки наявну традицію суддівського мислення, а й ту, якою вона має бути. Зрозумілой дотепно автор роз’яснює відмінності між визначеними ним дев’ятьма ііггеллектуальними стилями правосуддя, наводить докази існування прірви між науковцями-нравниками та суддями, окреслює прагматичний підхід до правосуддя.
In the study at hand, we focus on how social contexts promote academic performance disparities between Russian high schools. In particular, we investigate how a school's average USE (Unified State Examination) scores in Russian and mathematics relate to the social composition of its student body, material and human resources, and local deprivation. We develop a two-level hierarchical regression model to analyze data from school profiles collected in two Russian regions (Yaroslavskaya Oblast’ and Moskovskaya Oblast’) during the 2011-12 academic year. Both social characteristics of the student body as well as the schools' material and human resources were associated with academic performance. However, after controlling for the characteristics of pupils and schools, our study did not discover any significant independent effects of the local context. We discuss the implications of these findings with regard to developing contextualized measures of academic performance in Russia, and show how such measures could be used to identify cases of “resilient” and “failing” schools for the purposes of more accurate evaluations. In conclusion, we discuss the limitations of the current research and suggest several possibilities for empirical development.
This work is analyzing the Icon of the Last Judgment, which is most probably painted in the Yaroslavl region. Many striking and evocative images in the Last Judgment icon present a clear, interesting, representative and comprehensive catalog of the complex theological concepts connected to the Last Judgment theme as they evolved during the 17th century. Its iconography exemplifies all the teachings of Russian Orthodox tradition and includes additional Bible-based subjects not found in standard Christian doctrine; for example, the representation of “Outcast Nations” argues that different peoples enjoy different degrees of access to salvation, and that some peoples, to the mind of 17th-century Russian society, are beyond salvation. There is also attention to the Russian social context, and some depictions show that the artist or artists who created the icon grappled with social questions, attempting to categorize sinners who were condemned by Russian society at that time. An example of such itemization is the group who sinned by excessive drinking, which, unusually, is depicted separately from other groups of sinners and, it is implied, are to be treated with more than the traditional level of mercy.
Russian media are often accused of succumbing to state pressure (or of being an instrument of such pressure) , subordinating to power and, by implication, of being excessively dependent on state financing . In this contribution we are trying to systematically understand and analyze how the Russian state, in its post-Soviet incarnation, incorporates (or envisions incorporation of) the media into the national system of public institutions, and indeed how the state develops and implements public policy in respect of Russian media, are much more rare. Such analysis is, of course, complicated by the dual nature of media in Russia and in many other countries – on the one hand, as a branch of the economy and a market player among many, and on the other hand a purveyor of information, interpreter of cultural codes, and provider of public goods .
The book’s stated objective is to uncover context, “how social capital interacts with social institutions.” It is part of a new wave of research on social capital that, dissatisfied with both macro analyses limited to societal patterns and micro analyses limited to actors’ conditions, seeks to understand the operation of networks at the meso-level: how institutions and organizations structure the transfer of resources across networks. It purports to make both theoretical and methodological contributions, the first by developing the concept of “institutional logics,” the latter by “casting diverse contextual settings as ‘generators’ of social relations”, and studying these contexts from multiple methodological perspectives. (from a review by M. Small)
The article deals with the processes of building the information society and security in the CIS in accordance with modern conditions. The main objective is to review existing mechanisms for the formation of a common information space in the Eurasian region, regarded as one of the essential aspects of international integration. The theoretical significance of the work is to determine the main controls of the regional information infrastructure, improved by the development of communication features in a rapid process.The practical component consists in determining the future policies of the region under consideration in building the information society. The study authors used historical-descriptive approach and factual analysis of events having to do with drawing the contours of today's global information society in the regional refraction.
The main result is the fact that the development of information and communication technologies, and network resources leads to increased threats of destabilization of the socio-political situation in view of the emergence of multiple centers that generate the ideological and psychological background. Keeping focused information policy can not be conceived without the collective participation of States in the first place, members of the group leaders of integration - Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan. Currently, only produced a comprehensive approach to security in the information field in the Eurasian region, but the events in the world, largely thanks to modern technology, make the search for an exit strategy with a much higher speed. The article contributes to the science of international relations, engaging in interdisciplinary thinking that is associated with a transition period in the development of society. A study of current conditions in their relation to the current socio-political patterns of the authors leads to conclusions about the need for cooperation with the network centers of power in the modern information environment, the formation of alternative models of networking, especially in innovation and scientific and technical areas of information policy, and expanding the integration of the field in this region on the information content.