Постгуманизм: преодоление и наследие постмодернизма
In the focus of this article is one of the main directions of topical philosophy – posthu-manism. The author distinguishes it from the concept of «transhumanism» and traces its origin, development and current state. If posthumanism was originally concerned with cul-ture (the concept of Ihab Hassan’s criticism), then later he adressed a new ontology. At this point posthumanism approaches such areas of modern philosophy and social theory as ac-tor-network theory and object-oriented ontology. From the last two posthumanism differs in not being satisfied only with the new ontology, which proposes to move away from the tra-ditional anthropocentric concepts such as «man» and turn to «individuals», and offers an ethical and political program (Donna Haraway, Rosi Braidotti). The author comes to the conclu-sion that posthumanism is an alternative to cultural postmodernism, which excluded nature from the object of its attention. Posthumanists insist that the concepts of culture and nature should be reconsidered. In this sense, posthumanism can be considered as one of the versions of «postmod-ernism». However, many researchers in the XXI century, referring to posthumanism, describe it directly through the products of popular culture, thereby weakening the program of posthuman-ism. But, despite this, the emphasis on the era of «anthropocene» allows posthumanism to aban-don postmodern as a historical category, that is involved exactly in culture, and move to the dis-cussion of completely new topics such as ecology, earth, etc.