A Methodology for Automatic Formal Verification of Enterprise Architecture
For over a decade IT-business alignment has been ranked as a top-priority management concern, but there is little research on practical ways to achieve the alignment. EA development is a continuous iterative process, which implicitly ensures the achievement of a specific IT-business alignment level. Therefore, it is necessary to formalize the requirements for architecture and be able to automatically verify them. We propose a new methodology for detecting logical contradictions in enterprise architecture models based on a model checking approach adopted in the context of business modeling. In such methodology we use ArchiMate standard for a conceptual enterprise architecture description language which is fully aligned with TOGAF. We also offer several important verification queries and demonstrate practical applicability of our approach using a software prototype of the modeling tool which exploits MIT Alloy Analyzer model checking framework integrated with AchiMate Archi workbench.
Supply Chain Management in modern conditions requires close integration of business processes of transport companies and information technology. We know that today there are a large number of applications and information systems for the automation of logistics activities. Currently there is no complete and consistent classification of software products of the Transportation Management System (TMS). Their diversity is relevant in the context of the fourth industrial revolution ("Industry 4.0"). It's difficult to navigate existing and emerging information systems and choose the most appropriate. The most important class TMS products are designed to plan, organize, and account for the operation of the vehicle fleet. However, their practical use is often ineffective for several reasons. One of the common problems in the implementation of the information system is the lack of or inadequate investigation of all operating activities of the enterprise and its strategic position in the market, the analysis of information flows, evaluation of employees of business roles, mechanism of decision-making. The reason for this is the lack of logistics management competencies in the field of information technology, and on the other hand, often poor understanding of IT-managers of the transport processes. Therefore, a practical approach synchronization strategic goals, objectives, business processes, supply chain management with business logic implemented information system. The paper discusses the use of proper Zachman enterprise architecture framework as this approach. This proper framework is simple enough to understand, and is known for a long time in the IT industry. Therefore, its use in the development of the information supply chain management system in practice, it seems appropriate for small and medium-sized freight enterprises. It is known that the business processes of all transport companies in general are often very similar. However, in practice often requires a flexible adaptation of the information system for each of them.
These are the proceedings of the International Workshop on Petri Nets and Software Engineering (PNSE’13) and the International Workshop on Modeling and Business Environments (ModBE’13) in Milano, Italy, June 24–25, 2013. These are co-located events of Petri Nets 2013, the 34th international conference on Applications and Theory of Petri Nets and Concurrency.
PNSE'13 presents the use of Petri Nets (P/T-Nets, Coloured Petri Nets and extensions) in the formal process of software engineering, covering modelling, validation, and veriﬁcation, as well as their application and tools supporting the disciplines mentioned above.
ModBE’13 provides a forum for researchers from interested communities to investigate, experience, compare, contrast and discuss solutions for modeling in business environments with Petri nets and other modeling techniques.
The study identifies operational risks within service-oriented architecture (SOA) of information systems. As a part of operational risks a new error classification scheme is proposed for SOA applications. It is based on errors of the information systems which are service providers for application with service-oriented architecture. The proposed classification approach was used to classify system errors from two different enterprises (oil and gas industry, metal and mining industry). Besides we conducted a research to identify possible losses from operational risks and estimated losses for each error group per day.
Workshop on Program Semantics, Specification and Verification: Theory and Applications is the leading event in Russia in the field of applying of the formal methods to software analysis. Proceedings of the fourth workshop are dedicated to formalisms for program semantics, formal models and verication, programming and specification languages, etc.
Innovation is the realization of a creative idea being applied to an existing problem. This application may be either of a new idea or the adoption of an existing idea. As we can see some aspects of Enterprise Architecture development and other activities in large organizations may grow from supposed purely engineering tasks to real research problems. This is a soil for cooperation and co-innovation in research and development that may be of a great value for both science and industry.
This paper examines the practice of using the intuitivity test as an evaluation criterion of normative ethical theories. Mechanism of intuitive thinking and its differences from rational decision-making is described. It is shown, that due to the nature of intuitive thinking, the results of intuitivity test are often influenced by factors that contradict the conditions of the original problem, which calls into question the reliability of the results of such verification.
To verify realtime properties of UML statecharts one may apply a UPPAAL, toolbox for model checking of realtime systems. One of the most suitable ways to specify an operational semantics of UML statecharts is to invoke the formal model of Hierarchical Timed Automata. Since the model language of UPPAAL is based on Networks of Timed Automata one has to provide a conversion of Hierarchical Timed Automata to Networks of Timed Automata. In this paper we describe this conversion algorithm and prove that it is correct w.r.t. UPPAAL query language which is based on the subset of Timed CTL.
A model for organizing cargo transportation between two node stations connected by a railway line which contains a certain number of intermediate stations is considered. The movement of cargo is in one direction. Such a situation may occur, for example, if one of the node stations is located in a region which produce raw material for manufacturing industry located in another region, and there is another node station. The organization of freight traﬃc is performed by means of a number of technologies. These technologies determine the rules for taking on cargo at the initial node station, the rules of interaction between neighboring stations, as well as the rule of distribution of cargo to the ﬁnal node stations. The process of cargo transportation is followed by the set rule of control. For such a model, one must determine possible modes of cargo transportation and describe their properties. This model is described by a ﬁnite-dimensional system of diﬀerential equations with nonlocal linear restrictions. The class of the solution satisfying nonlocal linear restrictions is extremely narrow. It results in the need for the “correct” extension of solutions of a system of diﬀerential equations to a class of quasi-solutions having the distinctive feature of gaps in a countable number of points. It was possible numerically using the Runge–Kutta method of the fourth order to build these quasi-solutions and determine their rate of growth. Let us note that in the technical plan the main complexity consisted in obtaining quasi-solutions satisfying the nonlocal linear restrictions. Furthermore, we investigated the dependence of quasi-solutions and, in particular, sizes of gaps (jumps) of solutions on a number of parameters of the model characterizing a rule of control, technologies for transportation of cargo and intensity of giving of cargo on a node station.
Event logs collected by modern information and technical systems usually contain enough data for automated process models discovery. A variety of algorithms was developed for process models discovery, conformance checking, log to model alignment, comparison of process models, etc., nevertheless a quick analysis of ad-hoc selected parts of a journal still have not get a full-fledged implementation. This paper describes an ROLAP-based method of multidimensional event logs storage for process mining. The result of the analysis of the journal is visualized as directed graph representing the union of all possible event sequences, ranked by their occurrence probability. Our implementation allows the analyst to discover process models for sublogs defined by ad-hoc selection of criteria and value of occurrence probability
Existing approaches suggest that IT strategy should be a reflection of business strategy. However, actually organisations do not often follow business strategy even if it is formally declared. In these conditions, IT strategy can be viewed not as a plan, but as an organisational shared view on the role of information systems. This approach generally reflects only a top-down perspective of IT strategy. So, it can be supplemented by a strategic behaviour pattern (i.e., more or less standard response to a changes that is formed as result of previous experience) to implement bottom-up approach. Two components that can help to establish effective reaction regarding new initiatives in IT are proposed here: model of IT-related decision making, and efficiency measurement metric to estimate maturity of business processes and appropriate IT. Usage of proposed tools is demonstrated in practical cases.
The manual is intended for students of Department of computer engineering MIEM HSE. In the textbook based on the courses "Economics of firm" and "the development strategy of the organization." Discusses the key conceptual and methodological issues of the theory and practice of Economics and development planning of the organization. The use of textbooks will enable students: to analyze key performance indicators, and use the tools of strategic analysis with reference to concrete situations in contemporary Russian and international business. Special attention is paid to the methods and systems of information support of the life support functions of business organizations and management methodology of innovation and investment. An Appendix contains source data for analysis of competition in a particular industry.
The paper provides a number of proposed draft operational guidelines for technology measurement and includes a number of tentative technology definitions to be used for statistical purposes, principles for identification and classification of potentially growing technology areas, suggestions on the survey strategies and indicators. These are the key components of an internationally harmonized framework for collecting and interpreting technology data that would need to be further developed through a broader consultation process. A summary of definitions of technology already available in OECD manuals and the stocktaking results are provided in the Annex section.
Over the last two decades national policy makers drew special attention to the implementation of policy tools which foster international cooperation in the fields of science, technology, and innovation. In this paper, we look at cases of Russian-German collaboration to examine the initiatives of the Russian government aimed at stimulating the innovation activity of domestic corporations and small and medium enterprises. The data derived from the interviews with companies’ leaders show positive effects of bilateral innovative projects on the overall business performance alongside with major barriers hindering international cooperation. To overcome these barriers we provide specific suggestions relevant to the recently developed Russian Innovation Strategy 2020.