Foresight for the 'energy' priority of the Russian Science and Technology Strategy
National science and technology priority-setting has been an important and regular exercise performed by developed and many developing countries. This is very relevant for the conservative energy industry with long investment cycles. The future of energy is shaped by today's investments in research and development.
The Strategy for Science and Technology Development of the Russian Federation (2016) features seven priorities, one of which is related to “the transition to environmentally friendly and resource-saving energy industry”. The paper describes the foresight study of this energy priority that was launched to identify the focus of related future comprehensive science and technology funding programs. The design, methods and outcomes of this study that frame the future science and technology development in Russia's energy industry are discussed together with research and policy implications.
This collection of essays from leading energy, strategic, and economic policy think tanks focused on how energy relations are forming in the 21st century offers energy scholars and policy makers answers to what these increasingly close relationships mean for international politics and trade.
The paper reports the results of the cognitive mapping procedure applied to a series of interviews with the reviewers of the Russian Foundation for Basic Research. The procedure can be qualified as a qualitative research method, which allows to produce a graphic representation of the cognitive content of the respondents’ speech. The interviews touched upon the criteria and methods used by the reviewers in evaluating research proposals, as well as the value basis of the Russian scientific community. Cognitive mapping was applied to 15 interviews, which allowed to conclude that the examined group possessed coincident beliefs in regard to the following themes: recognition of the crucial value of the information about the principal investigator for the review process; understanding basic research not so much as purely curiosity driven but as aimed at a distant practical goal, which is viewed as an argument for funding a wide range of different basic research topics; accentuation of the meaning of earnings and favorable work conditions as motivations to engage in science as opposed to purely creative and self-actualizing motives; accentuation of the emigration of young talented researchers or their choice to engage a different career path as a key problem of science in Russia.
The article deals with the problems of planning science and technology development. The author considers two lines of theoretical models: mathematical economics and evolutionary empirical. A more detailed analysis focused on the problems of the statistics for the construction of mathematical economic models of scientific and technological development. On the example of Russia the author shows that the problems in theoretical basis lead to contradictions in state priorities of science and technology development.
The comparative analysis presents the first comparative study of the government procurement of French and Russian petroleum products with an in-depth review of foreign legal sources and national policy instruments. Based on the findings, this research led to the conclusion that public procurement of hydrocarbons is an extremely sensitive matter in the geopolitical, political and institutional sense. Despite some similarities in the general concept of French and Russian legislation in public procurement, the analysis revealed a substantial difference in the implementation of public procurement policies. Russia is characterized by a predominance of electronic auctions where the evaluation is based solely on the price whereas France uses a wide variety of different criteria to evaluate procurement offers.
The article deals with the problems of interaction between science and technology, innovation and industrial policy in Russia. In spite of the substantial intensification of the state policy in establishing of the new elements of the national innovation system, the coordination between different policies continues to remain weak that leads to inefficient use of resources under tight budget constraints. The author offers a set of actions aimed at improving the coordination.
During the last decade new systems of strategic tools of science, technology and innovation (STI) policy has been established in many developed and developing countries. Science and technology (S&T) Foresight in a variety of its forms and implementations is an integral part of these systems. The paper is devoted to the creation of the Russian system of technology Foresight. It provides a brief comparative analysis of S&T Foresight systems in different countries, their roles and practical applications in the government decision-making. The analysis of the Russian experience of S&T Foresight is used to identify major challenges and barriers for its use for development of government STI policy. The main aims, objectives and principles of the national system of technology Foresight are discussed.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.
We address the external effects on public sector efficiency measures acquired using Data Envelopment Analysis. We use the health care system in Russian regions in 2011 to evaluate modern approaches to accounting for external effects. We propose a promising method of correcting DEA efficiency measures. Despite the multiple advantages DEA offers, the usage of this approach carries with it a number of methodological difficulties. Accounting for multiple factors of efficiency calls for more complex methods, among which the most promising are DMU clustering and calculating local production possibility frontiers. Using regression models for estimate correction requires further study due to possible systematic errors during estimation. A mixture of data correction and DMU clustering together with multi-stage DEA seems most promising at the moment. Analyzing several stages of transforming society’s resources into social welfare will allow for picking out the weak points in a state agency’s work.