Политическая теория и понятие политического
The concept of the political is a central and yet one of the most controversial categories in the political thought. Despite the long history of reflection about the concept of the political, today there is still a lack of consensus not only about the substantive content of this notion, but also about its very right to exist. The purpose of this article is to clarify the epistemological opportunities of political theory in relation to the concept of the political.
If political theory is part of positive political science and is an autonomous form of knowledge, independent from philosophy, it must also include a special way of thinking about the political. The article gives a brief description of the subject field of political theory, describes the specificity of its view on social and political phenomena, and justifies the statement that the political manifests itself in the form of an event.
By virtue of the immanent bias of political thought, it is impossible to know about a political event beyond its borders. Thus, according to the author, political theory should focus on pre-political situations, in which political events can occur. To identify such situations, it is necessary to shift the focus from the “friend—enemy” formula to the “human—non-human” dichotomy. A political event happens when the fundamental norms of humanity are problematized at the collective level and a space opens up where people involved in the event are forced to take one or the other side. The boundary between human and non-human in a political event is erased, which determines the existential nature of the confrontation between friends and enemies.
Upon analyzing the political processes occurring during the nineteenth-twentieth centuries, G.Musikhin posits that the popular idea about the supremacy of professional managers in politics over demagogues speculating with mass’ political aspirations conceals an attempt by the power holders to get rid of the axiological rationale for the political hegemony. He concludes that when the governmental policy is supported by the voters’ will rather than sovereign power per se, the ideological discourse becomes of fundamental importance since support is lent to someone who can present his ideological position as a majority’s goal. The debate within the political space is built around an ability to offer to the society a more attractive political (to be more precise, ideological) prospect rather than detailed mechanisms of how to govern society (that are largely universal).
Ideas of the creation of the new human being (новый человек) in Russian history and culture from the 10th century until the homo sovieticus.
Assessing the nature, factors and alternatives of contemporary social change is a key challenge for contemporary social science requiring methodological approaches fit to interpret the radical transformations of the institutions and the habitat, of the individual’s mentality and modes of behavior. The way development has been perceived exclusively within the capitalist Western-oriented model is being reconsidered, and the principal methodological approaches of qualitative research in the field are being scrutinized. The critical characteristics of contemporary development are clearly manifested in the political sphere: the emergence of new institutions and new actors transform political spaces and reframe the conventional understanding of politics. The authors test the possibilities of achieving a methodological synthesis in studying political change and propose approaches to overcome the “methodological nationalism” which has so far dominated political science. This revision can be achieved, it is argued, by adequately using the understated cognitive potential of identity studies and by introducing into the research framework, alongside institutions and collective actors, the spatial and the individual, personal dimensions of political development. The edited volume presents the results of the research project funded by the Russian Foundation for the Humanities № 12-03-00306a “The methodology of analyzing political and sociocultural development and forecasting social and political change in the modernization context”.
The paper discloses specificity of the cultural factor in the politics of China, connected with political experience of the Chinese society, its national features and originality. The author analyzes the role of civilization potential of China in democratic transformations of the country. The rehear has an actual meaning and can promote a deepening of understanding of character of relationship of Russia and China. The work is of interest for experts across China, and also for a wide audience.
In this volume, based on a symposium organized by the Aleksanteri Institute, six scholars representing different fields of social research are presenting their points of view on the "Stalinism phenomenon".
The article deals with the processes of building the information society and security in the CIS in accordance with modern conditions. The main objective is to review existing mechanisms for the formation of a common information space in the Eurasian region, regarded as one of the essential aspects of international integration. The theoretical significance of the work is to determine the main controls of the regional information infrastructure, improved by the development of communication features in a rapid process.The practical component consists in determining the future policies of the region under consideration in building the information society. The study authors used historical-descriptive approach and factual analysis of events having to do with drawing the contours of today's global information society in the regional refraction.
The main result is the fact that the development of information and communication technologies, and network resources leads to increased threats of destabilization of the socio-political situation in view of the emergence of multiple centers that generate the ideological and psychological background. Keeping focused information policy can not be conceived without the collective participation of States in the first place, members of the group leaders of integration - Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan. Currently, only produced a comprehensive approach to security in the information field in the Eurasian region, but the events in the world, largely thanks to modern technology, make the search for an exit strategy with a much higher speed. The article contributes to the science of international relations, engaging in interdisciplinary thinking that is associated with a transition period in the development of society. A study of current conditions in their relation to the current socio-political patterns of the authors leads to conclusions about the need for cooperation with the network centers of power in the modern information environment, the formation of alternative models of networking, especially in innovation and scientific and technical areas of information policy, and expanding the integration of the field in this region on the information content.
This article is talking about state management and cultural policy, their nature and content in term of the new tendency - development of postindustrial society. It mentioned here, that at the moment cultural policy is the base of regional political activity and that regions can get strong competitive advantage if they are able to implement cultural policy successfully. All these trends can produce elements of new economic development.