Опыт прочтения рассказа Н. С. Лескова "Чертогон": совсем жисти нет...
The article presents a structural-semantic analysis of a N. Leskov’s story “The Devil-Chase” (“Chertogon”) in order to establish some particularly meaningful elements of the text and show how they direct and determine the understanding. In particular, there are some utterances, a narrative perspective, a narrative program, as well as some multiple variable focalizations, which show a narrative subject in focus of different points of view. As for a narrative organization, the told story is enclosed between two reflected sentences: (1) “there is absolutely no life” and (2) “...he feels life again” with a key link episode, such a devil-chase (‘chertogon’), as a condition for transformation of ‘non-life’ in ‘life’ in the time interval to ‒ to +1. In a narrative perspective, the so called rite, described in the story, includes some several episodes (sub-frames), such a riotous night in a restaurant, ablution in baths and praying before the icon of Virgin of All-Waving (“Vsepetaya”), connected by a causal implication A → B → C. So ‘fall’ is necessary implicated by ‘ascension’, as being concerned in a mutter and condition, behind only a basic opinion, what the narrative subject believes, as a ground and a “good popular faith” as guarantee for truth.
Article contains analysis of the decisions of the European Court of Human Rights on freedom of expression, in which the Court had to balance public interest against the protection of commercial structures from unfair competition or injury to their business reputation.
An IT security vulnerability can be considered as an inherent weakness in a target system that could be exploited by a threat source. The underlying hypothesis in our proposal is that each identified attribute associated with the target entity to be controlled should show the highest quality satisfaction level as an elementary indicator. The higher the quality indicator value achieved per each attribute, the lower the vulnerability indicator value and therefore the potential impact from the risk standpoint. In the present work, we discuss the added value of supporting the IT security and risk assessment areas with measurement and evaluation (M&E) methods and strategy, which are based on metrics and indicators. Also we illustrate excerpts of an M&E case study for characteristics and attributes of Security, and their potential risk assessment.
The paper treats the issue of identity of the ego, which constitutes the central problem of personology. The skeptical approach to this problem, which sees it as not being subject to be resolved by means of science, began with D. Hume's work. Contemporary personologists (P. Ricoeur and others) approach this problem through study of culture, which imparts the ego with «narrative identity». Cultural historic psychology is a «Bridge of interpretations», upon which philosophy of culture meets psychology, and psychological data associated with «personality» are interpreted on the basis of some specific cultural philosophic theory. The «conflict of interpretations» plays and essential role in personology, which participates in the processes of emergence and overcoming of the cultural crisis. Philosophical and methodological problems that define the near term perspective development of personology are formulated: whether there are any «ego invariants» that remain regardless of any possible cultural determination; whether the ego possesses any rigidity in relation to cultural determination and, if it does, what is the nature of this rigidity; whether ego identity is destroyed when cultural determination diminishes or ceases, etc.
In the book the issues of translation and interpretation are discussed by the worldwide leading scholars involved into translation.
This article traces the transformation of a genre of the review, traditional for the Russian journalism. This article offers the description of the speech structure of the review, based on the semantic category of an evaluation. The contemporary review occurrs not within a discourse of culture anymore, but also as a part of political or marketing communication within media environment.
For the first time in the national historical science a comprehensive analysis of modern Japanese historiography problems of territorial delimitation between Russia and Japan was made, which is extremely important in terms of understanding the ways and results of development of bilateral relations in the near and medium term. The book highlighted the direction of the Japanese historiography of territorial demarcation, given their characteristics and evaluation; the author carries out a comparative analysis of approaches to the assessment of Japanese historians documented legal aspects of Soviet-Japanese territorial demarcation. This exact book will be of practical and scientific interest for a wide range of political scientists, orientalists, historians, students and general public.
Max Weber. Basic concepts of sociology. Unabridged translation.
Japanese culture is famous for unique folklore, where monsters called yokai have become very popular. The visual appearance of many yokai occurred in the Edo period (1603-1868) and came to us thanks to the books printed by woodblock printing. The irrepressible imagination of Japanese artists of that time gave rise to amazing creatures, who continue to inspire filmmakers, animators and comic book authors to this day.
In this paper, I attempt to compare the relative rates of replacement of basic vocabulary items (from the 100-item Swadesh list) over four specific checkpoints in the history of the Chinese language: Early Old Chinese (as represented by documents such as The Book of Songs), Classic Old Chinese, Late Middle Chinese (represented by the language of The Record of Linji), and Modern Chinese. After a concise explication of the applied methodology and a detailed presentation of the data, it is shown that the average rates of replacement between each of these checkpoints do not significantly deviate from each other and are generally compatible with the classic «Swadesh constant» of 0.14 loss per millennium; furthermore, these results correlate with other similar observed situations, e.g. for the Greek language, though not with others (Icelandic). It is hoped that future similar studies on the lexical evolution of languages with attested written histories will allow to place these observations into a more significant context.
In 1976 Richard Dawkins coined the term meme as a way to metaphorically project bio-evolutionary principles upon the processes of cultural and social development. The works of Dawkins and of some other enthusiasts had contributed to a rise in popularity of the concept of memetics ("study of memes"), but the interest to this new field started to decline quite soon. The conceptual apparatus of memetics was based on a number of quasi-biological terms, but the emerging discipline failed to go beyond those initial metaphors. This article is an attempt to rebuild the toolkit of memetics with the help of the more fundamental concepts taken from semiotics and to propose a synthetic conceptual framework connecting genetics and memetics, in which semiotics is used as the transdisciplinary methodology for both disciplines. The concept of sign is used as the meta-lingual equivalent for both the concepts of gene and meme. In the most general understanding, sign is a thing which stands for another thing. In genetics this translates into gene that is a section of DNA that stands for the algorithm of how a particular biomolecule is built. In memetics, the similar principle works in meme that is a thing that stands for the rules of how a particular cultural practice is performed.
Within a brief historical period, BRICS as an inter-State association has become an influential player in the world economy and politics. BRICS is a primarily political entity, and in that regard, the BRICS grouping correlates with the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO). However, not all the expectations placed on the SCO by the founding countries at the time of its creation in 2001 have been met so far. The question is to what extent expectations may be fulfilled in case of BRICS.