Смирнова Елена Дмитриевна
This paper traces the scientific evolution of Elena Dmitrievna Smirnova, the founder of the national school of logical semantics. It is addressed the most significant Smirnova’s results in the development of model-theoretical methods, the theory of semantical categories, and intentional logic. The originality of her synthesis approach to logical semantics, which opens new perspectives in the foundations of apodictic knowledge, is argued for. The paper shows the role of Smirnova’s scientific and pedagogical activity in the development of philosophical logic in Russia.
In this paper we consider the possible worlds ontology as an instrument of analysis and clarification of some traditional notions of philosophy, logic and semantics. How many facets does the concept of possible world have? What do these facets represent? Our aim is to divide two ways in which possible worlds can enter into the complex network of assertion, denotation and interpretation. The first way we call the “point of reference”; the second is to be the “context of use”. To let possible worlds play both roles is to get a more adequate and flexible analytical tool which can bring us closer to the solution of many perplexed problems of modern logic.
An issue of ontological commitments of the language often is just stated without being the subject to analysis and considerations. Some aspects of logical semantics prove to have an ontological perspective as the result of variety of methods of semantic analysis. In case of formal languages ontological commitments require the strict formulation which allows even to introduce some brief version of the typology of those.
The article considers the Views of L. N. Tolstoy not only as a representative, but also as a accomplisher of the Enlightenment. A comparison of his philosophy with the ideas of Spinoza and Diderot made it possible to clarify some aspects of the transition to the unique Tolstoy’s religious and philosophical doctrine. The comparison of General and specific features of the three philosophers was subjected to a special analysis. Special attention is paid to the way of thinking, the relation to science and the specifics of the worldview by Tolstoy and Diderot. An important aspect is researched the contradiction between the way of thinking and the way of life of the three philosophers.
Tolstoy's transition from rational perception of life to its religious and existential bases is shown. Tolstoy gradually moves away from the idea of a natural man to the idea of a man, who living the commandments of Christ. Starting from the educational worldview, Tolstoy ended by creation of religious and philosophical doctrine, which were relevant for the 20th century.
This important new book offers the first full-length interpretation of the thought of Martin Heidegger with respect to irony. In a radical reading of Heidegger's major works (from Being and Time through the ‘Rector's Address' and the ‘Letter on Humanism' to ‘The Origin of the Work of Art' and the Spiegel interview), Andrew Haas does not claim that Heidegger is simply being ironic. Rather he argues that Heidegger's writings make such an interpretation possible - perhaps even necessary.
Heidegger begins Being and Time with a quote from Plato, a thinker famous for his insistence upon Socratic irony. The Irony of Heidegger takes seriously the apparently curious decision to introduce the threat of irony even as philosophy begins in earnest to raise the question of the meaning of being. Through a detailed and thorough reading of Heidegger's major texts and the fundamental questions they raise, Haas reveals that one of the most important philosophers of the 20th century can be read with as much irony as earnestness. The Irony of Heidegger attempts to show that the essence of this irony lies in uncertainty, and that the entire project of onto-heno-chrono-phenomenology, therefore needs to be called into question.
The article is concerned with the notions of technology in essays of Ernst and Friedrich Georg Jünger. The special problem of the connection between technology and freedom is discussed in the broader context of the criticism of culture and technocracy discussion in the German intellectual history of the first half of the 20th century.