This text is a translation of an article by British idealist J.E. McTaggart “The Unreality of Time” pub- lished in the journal Mind in 1908. Author argues for the unreality of time by employing his typical methods – rejection of reality of contradictory objects, difference between real and existent, etc. This paper became a standard of excellence of McTaggart analytical style and is a classic example of British absolute idealism. The translation was made by Andrey A. Veretennikov.
This work is dedicated to an attempt to answer the question, what for irony is needed. Usually it is considered to be just a literary device or a special way of conversation. However as any other source of language it has its grounds in the intention of the author and compared to this intention form, with the help of which irony effects its object. Is this way of effect interesting to philosophy – this is the question to answer. For this aim it will be useful to define the concept of irony. At first I will propone the two opposite point of view on irony, which were offered by Friedrich Schlegel and Hegel. Both these thinkers discern in irony a philosophical concept, although each in his way. Schlegel considered the nature of irony in its ability to show imperfection of all possible ways of expression infinite content. For Schlegel such vision meant a possibility to approach closer to this content. On the contrary Hegel saw in this effect of irony an origin of lightweight attitude to this content. What is the reason of such opposite interpretations of irony? Is this not irony itself? This is to be found out. In the end I will try to propose a new concept of irony and make some conclusions about it.
The article presents a description of modern system of professional training in Russia. The system is now under reforms and is characterized by a number of contradictions, which is typical of any dynamically developing field.
The paper discusses the principle of opposition as a way of understanding personality that is peculiar to European thought. This principle finds its conceptual foundations in dialectic phylosophy, depth psychology, and in the theory of vital relationships of personality developed by E.B. Starovoitenko. The opposition principle is considered within the context of general personology, and the possibilities of its application to state and develop new problems of personality research by means of synthesizing theory, hermeneutics, and practices of personology. The author describes the ontological, gnoseological, and reflexive phenomenological 'modes' of existence of oppositions in personality life. Results of a qualitative hermeneutic study of personality attitudes to the oppositions of life are presented. Intuitive ways of dealing with oppositions are reconstructed on the basis of European and Russian fairy-tales and described. The problem of the as a subject of attitude to oppositions in life is stated.
In the paper we continue investigations started in the paper presented at ISIPTA’15, where the notions of lower and upper generalized credal sets has been introduced. Generalized credal sets are models of imprecise probabilities, where it is possible to describe contradiction in information, when the avoiding sure loss condition is not satisfied. The paper contains the basic principles of approximate reasoning: models of uncertainty based on upper previsions and generalized credal sets, natural extension, and coherence principles.
The said article gives proof to the influence of contradictions for such different spheres of individual life as: an implementation of its life relations, intelligence life, self-knowledge and event-driven life filling. The article also generalizes that in the trend of life contradictions define changes of personality meaningfulness, development of knowledge on meaningful objects, formation of new I-stands with respect to life and also search and life limits expansion.
личность, мышление, отношения, противоречия, Самопознание, personality thought, Relations, contradiction, Self-knowledge
The article considers the Views of L. N. Tolstoy not only as a representative, but also as a accomplisher of the Enlightenment. A comparison of his philosophy with the ideas of Spinoza and Diderot made it possible to clarify some aspects of the transition to the unique Tolstoy’s religious and philosophical doctrine. The comparison of General and specific features of the three philosophers was subjected to a special analysis. Special attention is paid to the way of thinking, the relation to science and the specifics of the worldview by Tolstoy and Diderot. An important aspect is researched the contradiction between the way of thinking and the way of life of the three philosophers.
Tolstoy's transition from rational perception of life to its religious and existential bases is shown. Tolstoy gradually moves away from the idea of a natural man to the idea of a man, who living the commandments of Christ. Starting from the educational worldview, Tolstoy ended by creation of religious and philosophical doctrine, which were relevant for the 20th century.
This important new book offers the first full-length interpretation of the thought of Martin Heidegger with respect to irony. In a radical reading of Heidegger's major works (from Being and Time through the ‘Rector's Address' and the ‘Letter on Humanism' to ‘The Origin of the Work of Art' and the Spiegel interview), Andrew Haas does not claim that Heidegger is simply being ironic. Rather he argues that Heidegger's writings make such an interpretation possible - perhaps even necessary.
Heidegger begins Being and Time with a quote from Plato, a thinker famous for his insistence upon Socratic irony. The Irony of Heidegger takes seriously the apparently curious decision to introduce the threat of irony even as philosophy begins in earnest to raise the question of the meaning of being. Through a detailed and thorough reading of Heidegger's major texts and the fundamental questions they raise, Haas reveals that one of the most important philosophers of the 20th century can be read with as much irony as earnestness. The Irony of Heidegger attempts to show that the essence of this irony lies in uncertainty, and that the entire project of onto-heno-chrono-phenomenology, therefore needs to be called into question.
The article is concerned with the notions of technology in essays of Ernst and Friedrich Georg Jünger. The special problem of the connection between technology and freedom is discussed in the broader context of the criticism of culture and technocracy discussion in the German intellectual history of the first half of the 20th century.