Из истории месопотамского вооружения
The article deals with the toponyms occurring in the Aramaic and Arabic texts of the Late Sassanian and Early Moslem period concerning the biography of the prominent Eastern Syrian mystical writer Isaac of Nineveh. Two particular cases are analysed. Firstly, it is reported by Ishodnah and other writers that Isaac left Qatar in the mid-7th century and became bishop «of Nineveh», whence his cognomen Ninwāyā. The history of Nineveh and its mythological reception are traced to the 7th c. BC. Due to the never forgotten glory of Assyrian past, any new centre which ever re-emerged at Kuyunjik or Nabi-Yunus hills (which had been parts of Assyrian Nineveh) and even the pre-Mosul settlement on the opposite bank of the Tigris (once called Nav-Ardashir) received the name of «Nineveh» and were thought to be the same Assyrian Nineveh. It was this western pre-Mosul settlement that is really implied by «Nineveh» of Isaac. The population lived on the western bank of the Tigris in Nav-Ardashir, while the historical city of Nineveh had been abandoned. Bishops of Nineveh resided in the monastery of Beth Abe (in the Forests). It can be concluded that the term Ninwaya in the episcopal title of the Church of the East was a mere convention. Secondly, the toponym Matut is brought under analysis. After leaving Beth Nuhadra Isaac moved northwards to Susiana (Beth Huzaye), where he spent some time in the monastery of Rabban Shapuhr before moving to the mountain cave where he spent the rest of his hermitic life. The name of the mountain in Aramaic sounds Matut and it is said that Matut encircled Susiane which makes «Matut Mt.» to be a rather vast segment of Zagros. It is impossible to explain the horonym quite reliably, but it can be hypothetically interpreted as a late form of Ancient Mesopotamian GN Mat-Utem (a part of Zagros region at upper Lesser Zab was called that as early as the 2nd mill. BC), used in extended sense.
The book describes bricks stamped with Aramaic and/or figural impressions from Babylon of the sixth century B.C. The book under review is not only a catalogue of bricks with Aramaic impressions and figurative stamps. The authors analyze catalogued items from several viewpoints, among which the most important are the following: 1) paleography and the significance of these documents for the history of Aramaic writing; 2) interpretation of the images found on Neo-Babylonian bricks; 3) onomastics and its bearing on the ethno-linguistic situation in Babylon during several decades of the sixth century B.C. The book of B. Sass and J. Marzahn provides sufficient comparative material for the sixth century Aramaic writing to help solving problems of dating some Aramaic texts.
The sixth report on the new excavations at Chagar Bazar contains the complete publication of the objects discovered in the graves that were described in the fourth volume. Particular attention was devoted to the archaeological study of 5105 beads, and this study was completed by the examination of the beads in the cuneiform documents (by Ilya Arkhipov).
Arabs, like all nomadic peoples, assigned a cruical role to the issues of war, fair fight, and personal generosity. Wars and battles were part of the sign-symbolic system in the space of the ancient Arabic culture, which was dominated by the will for to defence. Accordingly, weapons were involved in this system, being part of several cultural spheres: the sphere of primary production and livelihood, humanitarian sphere, and as well, as an integral part of war, of the socionormative culture.
It is to be considered that it is in the Arab culture where Islam was born, and in the Quran and the Hadith of the Prophet such things as war and weapons also found a place, which underlines the deep connection of religious culture and the weaponry complex in the worldview of the early medieval Arabs.
Abstract—On the basis of logical-probabilistic approach proposed risk model successful attacks on social media on the Internet in terms of information warfare. We formulated and investigated the criterion of decision-making framework to achieve the goals of information warfare. Proposed algorithmic foundations of the developed criteria in Hadoop cluster.