Фарминдустрия Канады в глобальных цепочках создания стоимости: влияние доминирующего партнера
Participation of a country in global value chains is highly dependent on types of interaction with its major trading partners. The purpose of current research is to uncover the US influence on the Canadian pharmaceutical industry insertion into global value chains. The first part of the analysis is devoted to key trends of the US and Canadian pharmaceutical industries development under the expansion of global value chains. As a result, the following hypotheses are investigated: (1) Canada's participation in pharmaceutical value chains is mostly regional other than global; (2) Canada’s regional value added is primarily generated through cooperation with the US pharmaceutical sector; (3) dominant positions of the US corporations on the world as well as Canadian pharmaceutical markets stifle Canada’s integration into global value chains. The second part of the research describes the quantitative approach to the hypotheses testing. For instance, data from the World Input-Output Database is used to calculate the origin of value added based on the geography and product type (national and foreign value added in the exports of final and intermediate goods). The final part of the paper deals with the data interpretation and contains conclusions. Namely, it was found that pharmaceutical GVCs in North America are in fact regional for most countries and Canada is not the exception (first hypothesis proved). Further, foreign value added content of Canadian pharmaceutical exports is primarily generated in the US (second hypothesis proved). At the same time, the last hypothesis has not gained support in current research. The share of foreign value added (other than the US or Mexico) in Canadian pharmaceutical exports demonstrates significant growth during the period of 2002-2014. Thus, it can be stated that Canada has a positive experience of integration into GVCs under dominant trading partner.
The paper explores the evolution of trade and economic relations between Russia and Myanmar in 1948-2018. The author compares the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of Myanmar cooperation with China, India and Russia, highlighting their features and prospects. Summarizing the results, the author states that, despite the currently modest volumes of trade and investment, the potential for developing foreign economic relations between Russia and Myanmar is very high. However, Myanmar is an important link in the regional strategies of China and India, which also belong to the BRICS and the SCO. Therefore, it is impossible for Russia to build its political and economic ties with Myanmar without taking these aspects of regional relations into account.
For the first time since World War II, the U.S. seem to lose leadership at the multilateral trade talks shifting accents to bilateral and regional trade cooperation. The main reason for the shift is a deadlock at the WTO Doha-round negotiations where the U.S. face opposition of the steadily growing economies of India, China and Brazil.
Торговые переговоры, ГАТТ, ВТО, США, многосторонняя торговая система, ЕС, Япония, ИНДИЯ, КИТАЙ, Бразилия, Дж. Буш-мл., Б. Обама, М. Баррозу, Р. Зеллик, П. Лами, Р. Кирк, Л. да Силва, Карел де Гюхт, АТЭС, НАФТА, АСЕАН, трансатлантическое партнерство, "двадцатка", trade talks, GATT, WTO, U.S., Multilateral Trading System, Eu, Japan, India, China, Brazil, G.-W. Bush, B. Obama, M. Barrozo, R. Zoellick, P. Lamy, R. Kirk, L. da Silva, Karel de Gucht, APEC, NAFTA, ASEAN, Transatlantic Partnership, G 20
The article examines special politically-legal and social status of Muslim community in the USA. Not only positive experience of ethnopolitical integration is described, but also a number of problems connected to this situation.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.