Перестать мыслить «власть» через «государство»: gouvernementalité, Governmentality Studies, и что стало с аналитикой власти Мишеля Фуко в русских переводах
To stop understanding “Power” through the “State”: Gouvernementalité, Governmentality Studies, and the fate of Michel Foucault’s analytics of power in Russian translations
Gouvernementalité is a neologism introduced by Michel Foucault in 1978. Today, with its English version “governmentality”, it has become one of the key concepts of social sciences.
This term is used to represent a new recherche perspective developed by Foucault, to understand and analyze the phenomenon of "power" or, more specifically, various types of power relations typical for different cultures and political communities. In the past several decades, this perspective has provided methodological basis for an emerging interdisciplinary research field referred to, in English-language social sciences, as Governmentality Studies. Among several aspects of this approach is a novel outlook on the genealogy and specific features of modern societies and modern state, which no longer conceptualizes "power" through the "state", in contrast to traditional paradigms of political philosophy. At the same time, contemporary social science in Russia has been largely deprived of an opportunity to use the conceptual instruments and research methods offered by Foucault; and, among the key barriers to this is the problem of translation.
This paper aim to: 1. Summarize Foucault’s critical analytical approach to power, referred to by the concept of governmentality; 2. Compare Foucauldian analytics of power to traditional paradigms in political philosophy; 3. Highlight how the concept of governmentality is used over the years in Foucault’s works dealing with power relations and the topic of ethical subject; 4. Describe the peculiarity of the early period of Governmentality Studies in English-speaking social sciences; 5. Demonstrate that current Russian translations of Foucault’s primary texts incorporating the term gouvernementalité are not merely imprecise, but display what the French call “contresens” -- interpretations that directly contradict the essence of the original. As a corpus, the available translations do not convey meaning, but rather close off the Foucauldian conceptual and exploratory landscape for the Russian-speaking world.
The paper reconstructs, in the context of actual problems of Russian historical memory and basing on archives of various provenance and the then publications, a biography of M.-B. Hadjetlaché (aka Yu. Kazi-Bek Akhmetukov, G. Ettinger, etc., ca 1868–1929) – a Circassian writer, Muslim journalist, Russian adventurist and double-dealer; the arguments for his being born Jewish are provided. In comparison of this biography with his self-narratives, his constructing of Circassian and Muslim identity is analyzed. In particular, ideas (and their sources) of what Muslim belonging means, both inside and outside the Muslim milieu (that of Russian Muslim intelligentsia), are investigated; the role of mass Orientalism and the crossovers of different cultural spaces in the formation of Muslim self-representations is emphasized, as well as the perception of ‘being Muslim’ as culture rather than religion. The question of whether Hadjetlaché was a Muslim is taken on the brink of forgery and forging, imposture and invention of identity, and his using the latter politically as his ‘symbolic capital’ is demonstrated.
In this article the author encourages the modern scientific community to draw attention to the fact that law being a unique institution of society, appears also a peculiar element of its culture. Thus, it is defended the opinion on the necessity of attraction of highly valuable data and progress of sociocultural anthropology (especially its legal and political directions) in investigation of state-legal problems, appearing objects of jurisprudence and other related social sciences. In turn, such formulation of the problem requires to use a new approach to law and state, the approach of their natural and inseparable connection with culture (in the broadest interpretation of this concept) of particular society. It gives reason to believe, that law and state undoubtedly bear the imprint of concrete culture. This thought is also continued by the following thesis that research (more profound than we have in traditional textbooks on jurisprudence) of the nature of law and state, their mechanisms and specificities as social institutions in fact becomes impossible without the reference to culture (as the system of values, ideas and practices) of society. In addition to the idea of law and state’s sociocultural conditionality in the article it is also explored to what useful consequences entails application of the aforesaid anthropological method in jurisprudence, useful both in theoretical and practical aspect. So, it is noted that the anthropological approach, requiring the comprehensive immersion in historical-cultural material, has its advantage, for example, that it is really impossible without using of data and methods of practically all humanitarian sciences (sciences about human, sciences of anthropocentristic nature), such as history, sociology, political science, psychology, cultural studies and even philology. Thus, the anthropological approach enriches our understanding of law and state, making it more stereoscopic.
Collective monograph of the scientists of Institute of State and Law RAS devoted to scientific analysis of the transformation process of the state and its legal institutions in post soviet period.
At conferenceare discussed social and economic problems at the federal and regional level, search of ways and possibilities for practical application of resources and potential of research developments in the sphere of interaction of business and the state, development of interaction of the educational, research organizations, the state structures and business is performed.
The article analyzes the similarities and differences in the understanding of the political by Hannah Arendt and Carl Schmitt, drawing parallels to their personal destinies. According to the author, the differences in interpretation of the essence of the political by Arendt and Schmitt are sometimes funadmental. While for Schmitt there is no place for the political within the state, it exists only in its external actions, for Arendt, on the contrary, only through participation in the inner political life a human being becomes free, rises above the basic need to sustain life, goes beyond the relations of domination and slavery. Having considered the idea of Arendt in her work "On Revolution", the author concludes that where the political begins for Arendt, it ends for Schmitt, and vice versa.
The author studies the issue of synthesis of different theories and methods used by personality self-attitude studies. The theories and methods discussed are developed within the framework of different philosophical, psychological and humanitarian sciences. The issue of self-attitude personology development based on such synthesis is brought up. Presented personological model of self-attitude is explicated from the texts by Michel Foucault and unites trans$cultural ideas of individual self-attitude. The above ideas are studied as a cultural potential of psychological studies and practice of self-attitude by a modern personality.
The paper focuses on the paradox embedded in conceptual logics of the Left and Right thought, that is the semantic amalgam of the concepts of sovereignty and legitimacy. Through the conceptual deconstruction of Carl Schmitt and Michelle Foucault theories we demonstrate the actual identification of sovereignty and legitimacy in political discourse. Since this identification forms the international legal framework, we perceive the power as legitimate one by recognizing the sovereignty. We reveal the similarities in power’s perception and conceptualization of the most radical representatives of the Right and Left political thought and explain it through the merge of legal and sacral in concept of sovereignty and perception of the power’s technic as independent political value.
- Offers engaging debate surrounding leadership as a profession
- Includes contributions from a diverse number of experts
- Comprehensively illustrates the arguments for and against presenting leadership as a profession
This book presents a lively debate surrounding the professionalization of leadership. With contributions from both sides of the argument, it considers the historical overview of leadership and management as a profession, questions what constitutes a profession, and critically addresses the practicality of professionalizing leadership. With a range of perspectives including political philosophy, behavioral professionalism and management history, the book intends to facilitate further discussion on the issues at stake. With a number of education programs beginning to focus on the art and practice of leading people, this debate is particularly timely.
This article analyses media representations of LGBT social movements, taking the case of Saint Petersburg LGBT pride parades. The analysis is developed through the use of framing theory, which views the media as an arena where interest groups promote their own interpretations of particular issues. Frames juxtapose elements of the text in such a way as to provide the audience with a scheme within which to perceive the message. Social movements are viewed as interest groups that introduce new frames in public debate. Two types of frames can be distinguished: collective action frames and status quo frames. In this study, the usage of two collective action frames (equality frame and victim frame), and two status quo frames (morality frame and propaganda promoting homosexuality frame) were examined. Additionally, the sources of quotes used in news stories were analyzed. The study focuses on articles dedicated to Saint Petersburg LGBT pride marches in the years 2010–2017 in the most popular local Internet websites. The analysis shows that the coverage of LGBT pride marches can be divided into two distinct periods: 2010–2013 and 2014–2017. In the first period, LGBT activists dominated the coverage, quoted about twice as much as government officials. Equality and victim frames were prevalent. In the second period, activists were cited significantly less often, with the propaganda promoting homosexuality frame dominating the discourse. However, contrary to findings of previous studies on social movement representation, across the whole period under consideration, LGBT activists were quoted more often than government representatives. This finding calls for a further exploration of the conditions which allowed for such coverage in the context of political heterosexism and homophobia.
Experts code latent quantities for many influential political science datasets. Although scholars are aware of the importance of accounting for variation in expert reliability when aggregating such data, they have not systematically explored either the factors affecting expert reliability or the degree to which these factors influence estimates of latent concepts. Here we provide a template for examining potential correlates of expert reliability, using coder-level data for six randomly selected variables from a cross-national panel dataset. We aggregate these data with an ordinal item response theory model that parameterizes expert reliability, and regress the resulting reliability estimates on both expert demographic characteristics and measures of their coding behavior. We find little evidence of a consistent substantial relationship between most expert characteristics and reliability, and these null results extend to potentially problematic sources of bias in estimates, such as gender. The exceptions to these results are intuitive, and provide baseline guidance for expert recruitment and retention in future expert coding projects: attentive and confident experts who have contextual knowledge tend to be more reliable. Taken as a whole, these findings reinforce arguments that item response theory models are a relatively safe method for aggregating expert-coded data.
Recently, there has been a surge of interest in new data emerged due to the rapid development of the information technologies in scholarly communication. Since the 2010s, altmetrics has become a common trend in scientometric research. However, researchers have not treated in much detail the question of the probability distributions underlying these new data. The principal objective of this study was to investigate one of the classic problems of scientometrics—the problem of citation and readership distributions. The study is based on the data obtained from two information systems: Web of Science and Mendeley. Here we based on the concept of the cumulative empirical distribution function to explore the differences and similarities between citations and readership counts of biological journals indexed in Web of Science and Mendeley. The basic idea was to determine, for any journal, a “size” (it is said to be the topological rank) of citation and readership empirical cumulative distributions, and then to compare distributions of the topological ranks of Web of Science and Mendeley. In order to verify our model, we employ it to the bibliometric and altmetric research of 305biological journals indexed in Journal Citation Reports 2015. The findings show that both distributions of the topological rank of biological journals are statistically close to the Wakeby distribution. The findings presented in this study add to our understanding of information processes of the scholarly communication in the new digital environment.
This article is talking about state management and cultural policy, their nature and content in term of the new tendency - development of postindustrial society. It mentioned here, that at the moment cultural policy is the base of regional political activity and that regions can get strong competitive advantage if they are able to implement cultural policy successfully. All these trends can produce elements of new economic development.