Terra Incognita of the Russian Near North: counter-urbanization in today’s Russia and the formation of dacha communities
This article considers the salient features of counter-urbanization, which take place when urban residents, during the summer months, move to live in their second homes or their dachas [country homes or summer cottages]. Due to the social forces that are the result of incomplete urbanization, class polarization, and the rapid growth of major city centers, there are two powerful oppositional flows of migration taking place today in Russia. The first is centripetal migration or the movement of rural populations to large cities. The second form of migration is centrifugal migration or counterurbanization, which is the relocation of urban populations to rural areas. The article gives a theoretical overview of a new vision of migration as a part of modern flexible ‘liquid’ mobility, which enables urban residents to be constantly ‘on the move’, migrating between their urban apartments and suburban or distant dachas. A theoretical sociological background provides the field research, presented in the article, with an understanding of the realm of meanings of de-urbanization in a short and long historical run and in perspective. Russian men and women, who work in various professions due to advances in telecommunication technologies, are able to spend some extended periods at their dachas where they simultaneously work and enjoy the natural beauty and countryside. The different types of dachas in Russia that are either close to cities or in remote regions are examined. The case study of dacha counter-urbanization in the periphery region of Kostroma oblast' considers: 1) various features of the return counter-urbanization to remote dacha and 2) the social, economic and cultural effects that these dacha settlements have had on both the urban and rural residents.
The Book of Abstracts and Program of 2nd International Scientific Conference “Urbanization and Regional Development in Russia and Europe”, 21–22 November 2019, Moscow, Russia. Publisher: Institute of Geography, Russian Academy of Sciences, Staromonetniy 29, Moscow, Russia. Edited by: Vladimir Streletsky & Alexandra Starikova ISBN 978-5-89658-064-5 (pdf) DOI: 10.15356/URDRE2019 For more information visit the workshop site: http://agora.guru.ru/urbanization_Ru-Eu/eng
Summary of the research and fieldwork project in the early medieval town of Dzhankent (Kazakhstan)
The aim of the study is to describe the complex psychological and endocrine characteristics of stress reaction in groups of schoolchildren and students living in places with different degrees of urbanization. The study involved 983 students and schoolchildren from Moscow, Perm, Kudymkar, and settlement Beloevo (Perm Krai). The results: 1) the transition to university has a stress-effect that affects the endocrine and psychological level, 2) the highest level of stress reactions is typical for students of a big city compared to students of a megapolis or a small town, 3) the highest level of psychological and endocrine reactions was found for schoolchildren from a small town. The differences in the manifestations of stress reactions are related to the size of a place and are likely to be caused by chronic stress as a reaction to a large crowd of people in a megapolis and a big city.
Report on state of research project on the early medieval town of Dzhankent (Kazakhstan)
Aims. The study aims to investigate insofar regional differences in alcohol-induced mortality in Russia, which emerged during the early industrialization of the country, persisted over a prolonged period of time (from late nineteenth to early twenty-first century), surviving fundamental political and social changes Russia experienced.
Methods. Multivariate regression models with historical and contemporary data on alcohol-induced mortality in Russian regions were estimated to document the persistence of spatial patterns of mortality, as well as to identify the possible mediating variables. Numerous robustness checks were used to corroborate the results.
Results. Alcohol-induced male mortality in Russian regions in 1880s–1890s is significantly and strongly correlated with male mortality due to accidental alcohol poisoning in Russian regions in 2010–2012. For female mortality, no robust correlation was established. The results for male mortality do not change if one controls for a variety of other determinants of alcohol-induced mortality and are not driven by outlier regions. Consumption of strong alcohol (in particular vodka) appears to be the mediator variable explaining this persistence.
Conclusions. Hazardous drinking behavioral patterns, once they emerge and crystalize during the periods of fragmentation of the traditional society and the early onsets of modernization and urbanization, can be extremely persistent. Even highly intrusive policy interventions at a later stage (like those of the Soviet government) may turn out to be insufficient to change the path-dependent outcomes.
Report on the methods (geophysics, geomorphology, palaeobotany, micromycology) used in the fieldwork in the early medieval town of Dzhankent (Kazakhstan)
The book presents multidisciplinary analysis of the various manifestations of post-urban processes in modern society, the scientific understanding of a wide range of issues: the socio-economic and cultural effects and consequences of urbanization are highlighted, features and prospects of ruralization, return migration, the search for new non-urban way of lifestyles in urbanized countries, downshifting and upshifting, the role of modern technology in these processes are described. Special attention is paid to research value grounds, which are largely stem and supported by the space of the modern city.
The book is of interest to a wide range of scientists in humanities disciplines, in particular, sociologists, economists, psychologists, philosophers, cultural studies, political scientists, geographers. The book focuses scientific attention on the new cluster of studies.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.
This article is talking about state management and cultural policy, their nature and content in term of the new tendency - development of postindustrial society. It mentioned here, that at the moment cultural policy is the base of regional political activity and that regions can get strong competitive advantage if they are able to implement cultural policy successfully. All these trends can produce elements of new economic development.