Water Conservation and Wastewater Treatment in BRICS Nations: Technologies, Challenges, Strategies, and Policies addresses issues of water resources—including combined sewer system overflows—assessing effects on water quality standards and protecting surface and sub-surface potable water from the intrusion of saline water due to sea level rise.
Global warming is leading to a wide range of dramatic impacts caused by changes in surface temperature and precipitation, and increases in the frequency and scale of extreme weather events, such as floods and droughts. Climate change is occurring much faster than the global average in Russia. The water problems associated with the impacts of climate change have been very diversified due to the country’s huge amount of territory and vary substantially depending on season, economic activities, and population. The observable changes and impacts have already been dramatic in many areas, with high economic costs and loss of human life. The projections related to future climate change are even more worrisome and alarming: the threat to water resources will increase, possibly leading to huge losses. Large-scale adaptation and resilience measures are required in most Russian regions to avoid dangerous consequences in the near and medium term; however, the country still has a very weak adaptation policy, places a low priority on climate action, and employs poor proactive decision-making even in the most vulnerable areas. Climatic risk-management tools and adaptation of a national strategy will be essential elements for water management under conditions of heightened climate change in Russia.
The paper analyzes the contemporary situation in the history of interrelations between the cities and the water streams and puts the papers, published in the special issue of the Water History Journal into the propoer conceptual frame.
In this paper, we report experimental data on the implantation of hydrogen ions of different energies into crystalline quartz samples. It was shown that irradiation with protons with an energy of 20 keV produces an amorphous film on the surface of a quartz sample, and irradiation with 90-keV protons results in the formation of a layer with interstitial defects and an increase in the unit-cell parameter of quartz with preservation of the crystal structure of the disturbed layer. The examination of the samples by thermodesorption mass spectrometry showed that high-energy irradiation resulted also in loosening of the surface layer and considerable expansion of high-potential adsorption sites, which was the reason for the observed peak desorption of gases. The existence of desorption peaks allowed us to calculate the activation energy of surface desorption of gas components. It was also found that an increase in irradiation energy tends to enhance the total degassing of samples.
Bringing together a team of scholars from the diverse fields of geography, literary studies, and history, this is the first volume to study water as a cultural phenomenon within the Russian/Soviet context. Water in this context is both a cognitive and cultural construct and a geographical and physical phenomenon, representing particular rivers (the Volga, the Chusovaia in the Urals, the Neva) and bodies of water (from Baikal to sacred springs and the flowing water of nineteenth-century estates), but also powerful systems of meaning from traditional cultures and those forged in the radical restructuring undertaken in the 1930s. Individual chapters explore the polyvalence and contestation of meanings, dimensions, and values given to water in various times and spaces in Russian history. The reservoir of symbolic association is tapped by poets and film-makers but also by policy-makers, the popular press, and advertisers seeking to incite reaction or drive sales. The volume's emphasis on the cultural dimensions of water will link material that is often widely disparate in time and space; it will also serve as the methodological framework for the analysis undertaken both within chapters and in the editors' introduction.
The article analyses the passages about different kinds of water used in the latin liturgy and described in the Rationale of the famous liturgist Guillaume Durand, Bishop of Mende.
The dynamics of a two-component Davydov-Scott (DS) soliton with a small mismatch of the initial location or velocity of the high-frequency (HF) component was investigated within the framework of the Zakharov-type system of two coupled equations for the HF and low-frequency (LF) fields. In this system, the HF field is described by the linear Schrödinger equation with the potential generated by the LF component varying in time and space. The LF component in this system is described by the Korteweg-de Vries equation with a term of quadratic influence of the HF field on the LF field. The frequency of the DS soliton`s component oscillation was found analytically using the balance equation. The perturbed DS soliton was shown to be stable. The analytical results were confirmed by numerical simulations.
Radiation conditions are described for various space regions, radiation-induced effects in spacecraft materials and equipment components are considered and information on theoretical, computational, and experimental methods for studying radiation effects are presented. The peculiarities of radiation effects on nanostructures and some problems related to modeling and radiation testing of such structures are considered.
This volume presents new results in the study and optimization of information transmission models in telecommunication networks using different approaches, mainly based on theiries of queueing systems and queueing networks .
The paper provides a number of proposed draft operational guidelines for technology measurement and includes a number of tentative technology definitions to be used for statistical purposes, principles for identification and classification of potentially growing technology areas, suggestions on the survey strategies and indicators. These are the key components of an internationally harmonized framework for collecting and interpreting technology data that would need to be further developed through a broader consultation process. A summary of definitions of technology already available in OECD manuals and the stocktaking results are provided in the Annex section.