Towards an Integrated Framework of Bias in Noncognitive Assessment in International Large-Scale Studies: Challenges and Prospects
A conceptual framework of measurement bias in cross-cultural comparisons, distinguishing between construct, method, and item bias (differential item functioning), is used to describe a methodological framework addressing assessment of noncognitive variables in international large-scale studies. It is argued that the treatment of bias, coming from constructs, measurement procedures, items, or any combination, is often piecemeal and that the quality of studies would be enhanced by an integrated approach to all kinds of bias in all stages of a study. The extensive preparations of data collections involving feedback from all participating countries make it likely that constructs to be measured apply in most or all of the participating countries (thereby reducing the likelihood of construct bias). Large-scale studies tend to use up-to-date procedures for item bias (differential item functioning). Sources of method bias are examined much less. Particular attention is paid to response styles and possible ways to address such styles in large-scale studies. Finally, ways to enhance the integrated treatment of bias are described.
Public sector performance measurement may be affected by data manipulation. This study empirically explores strategies of data manipulation used by civil servants at the regional level in Russia. 25 civil servants from three regional governments were interviewed. Two strategies were identified: “prudent” bureaucrats kept a low profile by reporting “more-normal-than-real” figures; “reckless” bureaucrats aimed at inflating figures to maximize credit. Systematic application of these strategies produced a detectable bias in the overall performance data which was estimated using a nation-wide performance dataset covering the period of 2007-2011 (with a unified list of over 300 indicators from 83 regional governments).
This volume brings together twenty four articles by eminent historians from around Europe, presented in form of papers at the international conference on the Crimean War (1853-1856) held in Warsaw in 2007.
Global university rankings are often thought of as games, defined by roles and rules that universities must play in order to confirm their legitimacy and gain visibility as actors in the global academic market. While some countries are well represented at the top of rankings charts, others are just joining the race and testing out different strategies to improve their positions. We use the metaphor of the Olympic Games to highlight some important characteristics of the high-stakes, highly competitive contests represented by global university rankings, and the role of rankings in the international higher education system in general. This comparison also allows for a better understanding of the limitations that exist in using ranking positions as an indicator of system success, and why universities should approach the rankings game with caution.
In this Chapter the process of formation and development of international regulation of labor is considered, as well as subjects of such regulation among which the International Labor Organization plays a crucial role.
Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are considered gold standard in generating judicious evidence to support treatment decisions. Ideal-typical trials are called explanatory trials to distinguish it from trials completed under real-world conditions. The four most prevalent types of bias (selection-, performance-, attrition-, and detection-bias) can be avoided and internal validity of a study can be increased if all requested quality criteria will be met. The external validity can be neither investigated not can it be confirmed by randomized trials. But the confirmation of external validity is as important as the confirmation of internal validity because knowledge that has been generated in RCTs will be valuable only if it can be successfully applied to patients under real-world conditions. For confirmation of external validity the mentioned four types of bias have to be avoided. In addition, it has to be confirmed that the individuals from whom the evidence was derived are comparable to the individuals to whom the evidence should be applied. Violation of this simple appearing requirement is called 'sampling bias'. A two-step procedure seems to be useful to confirm internal as well as external evidence. As first step the efficacy of a therapeutic principle may be confirmed under ideal study conditions by using an explanatory trial without demanding the confirmation of external validity. In a second step the benefit for the investigated group of patients is examined under real-world conditions (pragmatic trial). The design and established methods for evaluation of these studies are discussed. The two-step approach offers three advantages: it reduces the risk to over-interpret the results of RCTs as explanatory trials can only demonstrate efficacy under ideal conditions. The benefit which is requested by our authorities can be demonstrated only by pragmatic trials which consider the external validity. Progress may possibly achieved only if controlled pragmatic trials will be used which can compare the influence of the intended (specific treatment effect) intervention with not-intended (confounder) interventions. Examples for these methods are the propensity score matching or structural equation models.
Conference proceedings 15th International Scientific Conference
Smolenice Castle 4th – 5th December 2014
This issue of the almanac aims at filling the gap in the mega-evolutionary research. The Editors believe that the present Almanac, which brings together scientists working in different areas of the vast evolutionary field, will hopefully make a contribution to this process.The contributions to this volume are subdivided into three sections:‘Universal Evolution’, ‘Biological and Social Forms of Evolution: Connections and Comparisons’, and ‘Aspects of Social Evolution’. Subjects and issues of the contributions to all three sections have a great deal in common and significantly supplement each other.
In this Chapter a system of international labour standards is described and fundamental internationally recognized principles and human rights related to labor are analyzed.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.