Принятие решений в международных спортивных организациях: обзор результатов
This paper surveys the literature on decision-making in international sports organizations. The International Olympic Committee, the Fédération Internationale de Football Association and many other federations delegate decision-making to internal committees. A complicated structure of those committees that reflects the international status of federations, a unique type of decisions that is inherent to sports industry, and specific decision-making mechanisms attract the researchers’ attention. The survey is comprised of four paragraphs. The first paragraph briefly reviews papers aimed at studying preferences of the international sports federations committee members. The second paragraph is devoted to papers that analyze determinants of success of bids for hosting sporting mega-events. In the
third paragraph we discuss different ways to fight corruption in decision-making bodies of international sports federations. Finally, we touch on the problem of accountability in international sports federations. The focus of the paper is on the economics literature, and it is not aimed to discuss a wide literature on such topics as management of sport organizations or psychology of decision-making.
The first volume involves the Russian Federation as a common denominator with either Norway (oldest multilateral region in the Arctic) or the United States (sharing with Russia the longest maritime boundary in the world) to interpret changes with connected biophysical and socio-economic systems that underscore decisions across a “continuum of urgencies” from security to sustainability time scales. The second and third volumes will emerge from presentations during the annual Arctic Frontiers Conferences in Tromsø, Norway, starting in January 2020. Volume 2 will consider circumstances associated with areas beyond sovereign jurisdictions from Arctic and non-Arctic perspectives, recognizing the international community has unambiguous rights and responsibilities in the Arctic High Seas under the law of the sea. Volume 3 is intended to synthesize insights on a pan-Arctic scale, analogous to the world ocean across all sea zones, involving decisions to achieve ongoing progress with sustainability, coupling governance mechanisms and built infrastructure. Throughout this book series, which we expect to expand beyond the Arctic, science diplomacy will be applied as an international, interdisciplinary, and inclusive (holistic) process, facilitating informed decisionmaking to balance national interests and common interests for the benefit of all on Earth across generations. With holistic integration, this book series will reveal skills, methods, and theory of informed decisionmaking that will continue to evolve, contributing to balance, resilience, and stability that underlie progress with sustainability across our home planet.
This abstract offers a method for ranking alternatives in a decison making problem. It determines importance of the criteria with help of factor analysis. Though the alternatives are evaluated by each of the criteria by a group of experts, the weights for the criteria are to be found with the help of factor analysis.
The algorithm of the method is as follows:
1. Under the constraint that the problem handles several evaluation criteria, several items to compare (alternatives) and several experts to give their evaluation.
2. Find the principal components that replace the input criteria implicitly.
3. To find the final mark for each of the alternatives the marks given by experts are multiplied with the regression coefficients, found in the step 2.
4. The final marks are represented in axes „crieria“ and „mark“ so that each alternative is described with a curve (trajectory). These curves represent the map of graded alternatives. Depending on the problem to be solved (min or max,) a record for each main criteria is to be found.
5. With help of special deviation measure procedures (Minkowski, Chebyshev e.t.s) a matrix of deviations from ideal solution is to be built.
6. The alternatives are to be rated in accordance to the deviation from the ideal trajectory.
To prove the effectiveness of the method it was applied to a problem for 5 alternatives, 3 experts and 38 evaluation criteria. The problem was also solved with the help of most popular method of Weighted Sum Model (WSM) and TOPSIS method. The problem was also being solved by finding the geometric mean for each alternative. The results for approaches were compared and the method, offered in this abstrat, proved itself as a feasible one.
The paper presents the results of empirical research enterpreniur decision making process. The features of modern Russian entrepreneurship, decision-making process, psychological characteristics required for different types of decision-making in organizations is identified.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.