Neurocognitive Aspects of Language Function and Use
Special Theme of the Issue. Neurocognitive Aspects of Language Function and Use
The article explores 12 dictionaries of German youth slang
published annually by Langenscheidt Publishing House over the
period from 2008 to 2019 Specific features of lexical units which
are part of those lexicons are identified in the context of lexico-
sematic dynamics taking place in modern sociolect used by young
people. All findings are supported by citing original word definitions
from the dictionaries under review.
The idea of conceptual schemes is one of the most influential and widely used notions in contemporary philosophy. Within the analytic tradition the idea occupies a fundamental position in positivist views as well as in replacing them post-posi - tivist conceptions. Outside the analytic tradition a similar idea is of key importance in structuralist and post-structuralist theories. Despite the broad applicability of the notion of a conceptual scheme, its precise sense is far from being evident in the context of various philosophical trends. Moreover, the well-known American philosopher Donald Davidson's position is that any clear, non-metaphorical meaning cannot be as - cribed to that notion at all – the statement which he tried to substantiate in his famous paper On the Very Idea of a Conceptual Scheme published in 1974. The present paper is aimed, firstly, at outlining the historico-philosophical evolution of the idea of conceptual scheme, concentrating on its development in logical positivism and post-positivist theories of such philosophers as Quine, Sellars, Kuhn, et al., and, secondly, at examining Davidson's criticism of both the idea and the position of conceptual relativism which was raised on its ground, revealing the assumptions which that criticism relies on and which concern relations between language and thought, truth and translation, as well as the role of the scheme-content dualism for empiricism and the place of extensionalism in semantics, etc. Our purpose, on the one hand, is to evaluate the historico-philosophical significance of Davidson's criticism; on the other hand, it is to show that his critical arguments remain to be actual since they shed a new light on the idea of conceptual schemes and allow us to determine their place in tackling the fundamental philosophical question of a relation between reality, thought and language.
Proceedings of the conference "Cognitive Science in Moscow: New Research" (June 19, 2019).
Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference Neurobiology of Speech and Language Organised by the Laboratory of Behavioural Neurodynamics, Saint Petersburg State University September, 2019. Edited by Olga Shcherbakova, Yury Shtyrov Saint Petersburg, Russia
In the age of globalisation which broadly means international interaction the idea of global communication comes to the front. Communicating globally implies using intercultural links and involves cultural knowledge of business counterparts as an integral part of global interaction. Language media being an essential tool of global interaction facilitate the process of business communication provided that certain guidelines are taken into consideration.
The connectivity between perisylvian language areas is subserved by the three segments of the arcuate fasciculus (AF): long segment, connecting posterior temporal and inferior frontal areas, and anterior and posterior segments, connecting inferior frontal lobule to inferior frontal and posterior temporal areas, respectively. Disconnection of the long segment of the AF gives rise to conduction aphasia, manifesting itself in impaired repetition due to a deficit in sensorimotor integration. Systematic analyses of the specific contributions of the three segments of the AF to language processing are, however, lacking. The current study addresses the roles of these white-matter tracts in language production and comprehension at various linguistic levels. We found that lower volume of the long AF segment following neurosurgery is associated with greater deficit in language production and repetition, consistent with the tract’s well-established role in sensorimotor integration. We did not find any relation between the volumes of the anterior and posterior AF segments and language deficits during word and sentence production and comprehension. One plausible explanation is that these tracts are not critical for language processing, whereas the functions they underlie in healthy speakers demonstrate a greater capacity for reorganization during the slow growth of a brain tumor, as opposed to those carried out by the long AF segment.
This text begins by applying the critique of phrenology to contemporary neuro-science in order to raise, once again, the question of consciousness. I then argue that consciousness is a process and product of the body, driven by history; like the work (and a work ) of art. This becomes clearer with Hegel's differentiation between human and animal consciousness, that is, in how our language and thought can tolerate contradiction, even grasp it as true. Thus, as Aristotle knew: consciousness is to the body as the sign is to the referent — and this has implications for our very survival.
The book describes the concepts of culture and language in the work of the austrian writer Franz Kafka.