Исследование читательской грамотности студентов в условиях билингвального высшего образования
Th e aim of the study is to explore the levels of reading literacy of Russian fi rst-year university students both in Russian and in English in a bilingual learning environment. We have developed an instrument using PISA reading literacy test in order to assess reading skills and reading literacy of students in their native and foreign languages. Th e study reveals that reading literacy levels in Russian is higher than in English, yet it reaches the highest levels of text interpretation and evaluation in neither of the languages.
The book is intended for undergraduate and graduate students of the Higher School of Economics. Its main objective is developing academic skills, namely enriching students’ academic vocabulary, which is an integral part of their professional education. Being able to use appropriate academic vocabulary in writing is essential for this kind of activity.
Developing Academic Literacy correlates with the book Academic Vocabulary in Use by Michael McCarthy and Felicity O’Dell (Cambridge University Press, 2008) and can be used as a source of additional exercises to practice topics covered there. Out of 50 units presented in this book we have chosen 45 which are of particular importance for the context of the National Research University. However, each unit of the present book contains not only practical exercises but also a theoretical part explaining the use of studied lexical units. Thus, the book can be used independently. As each unit covers a different lexical topic, the units can be studied in any order.
The tasks are aimed at both recognizing the lexis (on its own and within short contexts) and using it. The exercises comprise such tasks as matching words with their definitions, synonyms, antonyms, completing sentences with appropriate words, matching parts of sentences. Special attention is paid to collocations in academic context. The illustrative examples have mostly been taken from the British National Corpus, the Corpus of Contemporary American English and monolingual English dictionaries.
The book can be used both in class and individually. The exercises are provided with the Key, which allows students to check their answers, and, thus, makes the book suitable for self-study purposes. The book is provided with the Resource bank, which consists of abstracts from academic articles. All the abstracts contain lexical units studied in the book and can be used as a source of additional exercises by a teacher or self-check material by a student.
Th e paper raises the issue of the importance of academic literacy development in a University setting. Academic literacy theory is contextualized, along with theoretical and practical academic writing frameworks, by using the cases of American and European Universities. An attempt is made to explain why academic writing (in Russian as well as in English) is a key academic literacy component and how it should be eff ectively integrated into the University curriculum.
The article focuses on developing academic literacy in an English for Academic Purposes course. It reviews different approaches to teaching academic writing and shows that the "reading-to-write" approach might be the most effective one. The paper also identifies some difficulties that Russian students are likely to have due to a low level of native language academic skills and suggests ways to overcome them.
Internationalization of the modern system of education poses multiple challenges for students. Not only does this process provide them with new opportunities, such as continuing education abroad at the master’s level, but it also establishes requirements to be aware of the academic conventions different from those they learn at the bachelor’s level at a Russian university. Awareness of academic conventions implies not simply theoretical knowledge of the Western higher education system but also acquisition of practical tools that will facilitate students’ ability to integrate their knowledge into a new academic environment. One of the most essential tools for students is undoubtedly academic English. However, academic English skills development frequently leads to the situation that can be metaphorically called ‘dual academic personality,’ when students have to be able to quickly switch from one academic style to another depending on the educational context. Firstly, this paper will examine differences between Russian and Western academic writing conventions (focusing on the requirements to a BA research project), Then main difficulties and typical mistakes in academic legal writing in English made by Higher School of Economics students will be analyzed.
As a result of Russia’s efforts to join the global academic community, key professional competencies in higher education must be reevaluated. The main aim of this article is to explore the role of writing within a foreign university setting, as well as to study the current approach to teaching writing at the National Research University Higher School of Economics. The results of our study reveal that, despite the increasing importance of academic writing and all related sub-skills, there is little evidence that the development of writing skills receives proper attention within the NRU HSE. The paper concludes with some ideas on how to better integrate academic writing into the broader university curriculum.
This third edition of Moral Constraints on War offers a principle by principle presentation of the ethics of war as is found in the age-old tradition of the Just War. Parts one and two trace the evolution of Just War Theory, analyzing the principles of jus ad bellum and jus in bello: the principles that determine the conditions under which it is just to start a war and then conduct military operations. Each chapter provides a historical background of the principle under discussion and an in-depth analysis of its meaning. More so than in the previous editions, there is a special focus on the transcultural nature of the principles. Besides theoretical clarifications, each of the principles is also put to the test with numerous historical and contemporary examples. In Part three, Just War Theory is applied in three specific case studies: the use of the atomic bomb against Japan in World War II, the Korean War (1950-53), and the use of armed drones in the "war on terror." Bringing together an international coterie of philosophers and political scientists, this accessible and practical guide offers both students of military ethics and of international relations rich, up-to-date insights into the pluralistic character of Just War Theory.
The article deals with a massive protest movement which swept major Iranian cities starting from the end of 2017. The fast growth of prices, the devaluation of the national currency, and environmental issues triggered a serious civil unrest which united different social groups and professional guilds in their dissatisfaction with the current socio-economic situation in the country. The most important thing which makes this protest different even from the events of 1388/2009 is the active participation of the so called bazari, or traditional middle class of merchants and small shop owners, who for decades presented a ground base for the Islamic regime. As long as the protest continues, it can have extremely negative consequences for the Islamic Republic, especially under the conditions of growing external pressure. The re-imposition of the former unilateral sanctions by the US and the implementation of new restrictions have already had a significant impact on daily life of common Iranians. Despite the difficult conditions caused by the sanctions, which the Iranian government calls a “psychological war” (Jang-i ravani) against the country, and the unstable situation in the Sunni regions of the west, north-west and south-east, the Islamic Regime (Nizam-i Islami) is still able to remain in control of the state. What realities of Modern Iran make its population “tired”? What was the reaction of the Iranian Government and Leader of the Revolution and how is the Iranian establishment going to overcome the crisis? Does the Iranian regime take necessary steps to decrease social inequality? What forces stand behind these protests in the country and abroad? These are the main questions to be answered in order to understand possible future developments and their results for the Islamic Republic and regional stability.
Main theme of the article are the types of imagery becoming increasingly characteristic of contemporary culture. The core feature of these types is their being distributed across time and space, their ability to accompany us virtually everywhere, without being tied to any organizational form. Distributed imagery opposes “traditional”, non-distributed images “representing” some identifiable subject-matter. One of the essential traits of non-distributed imagery is its normative claim addressing not only the ways of its interpretation but also bodily practices of the perceiving subject, relevant for experiencing images of this kind. In contrast to the inherent oppressiveness of non-distributed imagery, connected to a perceptual regime characteristic of it, the distributed one draws not on reduction and control of the body of the perceiving subject but – on the contrary – on intensifying (and in this sense, on emancipating) its bodily emotional self-presence. From diachronic point of view, the relationship between distributed and non-distributed imageries is mediated by quite complicated socio-historical and material-technological dynamic of the developed and late modernity. Reconstruction of this dynamic enables us to identify the genetic interrelation (continuity) between non-distributed and distributed imagery. From synchronic point of view, distributed and non-distributed imagery forms generate incompatible experience types with mutually exclusive structural characteristics and social-political implications (discontinuity).
Russian migrant communities in Europe, as well as the USSR and European states’ policies towards them, were sufficiently studied in English-, French- and Russian-language relevant scholarship. However, West and South Asia received significantly less attention, although the region served the main transit zone in this process, especially the countries such as Turkey, Iran, Afghanistan and even British India. During the interwar period hundreds of thousands of migrants from Soviet Russia either passed through these Southern regions towards Europe and the United States or founded their migrant communities there. These migrants became an integral part of political activism professed by Russian émigré communities all over the world in the 1920s-30s. This quite often resulted in them being manipulated on a massive scale by other governments in their foreign policies toward Soviet Russia, especially by Britain – Russia’s traditional rival in the region. On the other hand, the positions of the Soviet government in political and military terms toward its southern neighbours were significantly stronger than those in Europe. Having an upper hand in its relations with these states, the Soviet government would resort to military invasions, large-scale intelligence operations, the massive bribing of local police and the military, particularly in the border areas, as well as to imposing inter-state border-control treaties, − all this done with the aim to neutralise the anti-Soviet émigré activities and to physically liquidate their active representatives abroad as well as to conduce to the repatriation of larger numbers for subsequent prosecution on the Soviet territory.
Methodologically drawing on the most recent works in Migration Studies, in general, and in Russian Emigré Studies, in particular, the current research studies migration from the USSR into the neighbouring countries of West and South Asia – one of the most strategically important regions in the twentieth century. Within the timeframe 1917-1930, research looks into the phenomena, such as displaced statehood, political activism and cross-cultural interaction in the context of the migration policies of the relevant states (Turkey, Iran, Afghanistan, Britain and the USSR). The primary-source base of this research consists of mostly untapped documents from British, Russian, French, Turkish, Azerbaijani, Iranian archives and the International Institute of Social History, Amsterdam, collections as well as memoirs and private correspondence of migrants themselves. While highlighting some commonalities, the paper argues that the situation of Russian migrant communities in West and South Asia diametrically differed from the one in Western Europe, and puts forward a detailed analysis of the causes, developments and outcomes of this phenomenon.