ДРУГОЙ: типологические наблюдения
The paper presents a cross-linguistic investigation into specific characteristics of the expressions translated as ‘other’. We discuss the appearance of OTHER expressions at a periphery of nominal phrases or before nouns in right-branching languages, their occasional incompatibility with determiners and certain peculiarities in the expression of number. The features discussed suggest that OTHER expressions are in many respects similar to determiners, even though they should not necessarily be treated as such.
Im Beitrag wird die Regelung der Abfolge von althochdeutschen schwachbetonten Wörtern ProNom.> ProRefl.> ProDat.> ProAkk.> ProGen.> (Adv) behandelt, die den Sequenzbeschränkungen für Klitika sehr nahe steht. An Beispielsätzen aus Otfrid wird das Zusammenspiel der Faktoren aufgedeckt, die das widersprüchliche Verhalten der Blockmitspieler und Schwankungen in der Wortstellung beeinflussen (phonetisch abgeschwächt ~ phonetisch gewichtig /gereimt, desemantisiert ~ vollwertig beziehungsweise fokussiert, kasusgerechte Abfolge ~ Abfolge nach semantischen Rollen u.a.). Die althochdeutschen Sequenzbeschränkungen werden als eine Etappe der Grammatikalisierung von Vollwörtern zu Klitika eingeordnet, die einen Einblick in die möglichen Mechanismen des diachronen Wandels liefert.
The paper discusses the results of a series of experimental studies on scalar inferences, which is part of linguistic pragmatics. The findings argue for intrascalar and interscalar diversity of scalar inferences. Moreover, it shows that adjectival scalar inferences are derived at a relatively low rate.
Verb production has been shown to be impaired in individuals with agrammatic Broca’s aphasia. Several theories linked this deficit to problems with the implementation of grammatical information the verb contains. In particular, the number and the type of arguments associated with a verb were suggested as causes of production difficulties in agrammatic speakers. The influence of these two factors on agrammatic production has earlier been investigated in English and Dutch (Thompson, 2003; Bastiaanse & Van Zonneveld, 2005).
This study describes the use of the nominative object in infinitive clauses in Old Russian and Old Novgorod dialect. There are two competing constructions in this position: nominative object with infinitive and standard (accusative) object. The main goal of the paper is to analyze the choice between nominative and accusative case in these constructions. Nominative objects in infinitival clauses are considered in terms of differential object marking (DOM). The author compares nominative objects with unmarked objects in the Uralic languages. The most significant for the selection of case in this construction are word order and information structure.
The book is devoted to the word order typology. The languages with free order are under discussion. It concerns verious phenomena that can trgger word order variation and have impact on the syntactic structure of a sentence such as infromation structure, differential argument marking, clitics position etc.
The article presents the Typological Database of Qualities, which aims at providing a new tool for research in lexical typology. The database contains information on the lexicalization of several semantic fields of adjectives in different languages (like ‘sharp’ — ‘blunt’, ‘empty’ — ‘full’, ‘solid’ — ‘soft’, ‘thick’ — ‘thin’, ‘smooth’ — ‘rough’, etc.). We discuss issues concerning database structure (in particular, the choice of information units that would make the meanings from different languages comparable to each other). Special attention is devoted to the representation of figurative meanings in the Database which allows to investigate the models of their derivation from the literal meanings. The developed database can be used for solving both theoretical and practical tasks. On the practical level, the Database may serve as a multilingual dictionary which accounts for fine-grained differences in meaning between individual words. On the theoretical side, the Database allows for various generalizations on cross-linguistic patterns of polysemy and semantic change.
The paper is focused on the study of reaction of italian literature critics on the publication of the Boris Pasternak's novel "Doctor Jivago". The analysys of the book ""Doctor Jivago", Pasternak, 1958, Italy" (published in Russian language in "Reka vremen", 2012, in Moscow) is given. The papers of italian writers, critics and historians of literature, who reacted immediately upon the publication of the novel (A. Moravia, I. Calvino, F.Fortini, C. Cassola, C. Salinari ecc.) are studied and analised.
In the article the patterns of the realization of emotional utterances in dialogic and monologic speech are described. The author pays special attention to the characteristic features of the speech of a speaker feeling psychic tension and to the compositional-pragmatic peculiarities of dialogic and monologic text.