Адаптация диагностического инструментария: опросник «Проактивный копинг»
The article presents the results of adaptation and correction of the Russian-language version of the questionnaire “proactive copying inventory”. This questionnaire was translated into Russian by E.S. Starchenkova, but the results of its psychometric verification are not available in publications. The original Russian version of the questionnaire showed good consistency of scales (Cronbach’s alpha was greater than 0.77), but unsatisfactory compliance with empirical data by the results of confirmatory factor analysis (χ²(df) 3025.73 (1259); p <0.01; CFI 0.76; TLI 0 , 75, RMSEA 0.056). Based on the analysis of the theoretical model of the classification of coping behavior using the Confirmatory Factor Analysis, a shortened version of the questionnaire was proposed which has good indicators of compliance with the original data (χ²(df) 509,05 (307); CFI 0.95; TLI 0.94; RMSEA 0.04). The abbreviated version showed good indices of internal discriminant validity, and significant correlations were also obtained with the scales of the COPE questionnaire that were close in content.
The goal of the research was investigating the personality features of coping behaviour in family conflicts. The results of the empirical research (297 respondents) are given in this article. Classification of the four personality types showing various features of coping behaviour in a situation of family conflicts – dependent, steady, negative, and diffuse, was the result of the research. The research results allow us to suggest that hardiness level has become the main factor in the choice of coping strategies in a situation of family conflicts.
This article presents an investigation of coping behaviour with regard to difficult life situations among Orthodox students in Russia. It analyses the results of an exploration of the influence of religiosity on different coping strategies. The sample investigated includes Orthodox students from two universities in the Russian Federation. In the study, we used the questionnaire “Me and my attitude towards religion”, Heim’s technique for revealing individual coping strategies, Smirnov’s psychometric technique encompassed in the “Questionnaire of religious activity”, and Shcherbatykh’s “Test for revealing the level of individual religiosity”. The study suggests that different coping strategies can be applied in difficult life situations.
Sociopsychological analysis in the study showed that there is a relationship between the level of religious belief and strategies used to overcome difficult life situations. The presence of a positive connection between protective and capturing behaviour showed that highly religious people are characterised by active non-adaptability. Such people overcome difficult situations with energy and activity, combined with an expression of humility in the face of the situation.
Integration of 'visible minorities' is complicated by the pressure of stigma that, when acted out, can restrict access to various resources and have a destructive impact on the personal and social identity of an individual. This article examines how ethnicity has influenced the formation of adaptation strategies in the specific case of North Caucasus migrant experience in Moscow. Studying migrant attitudes can help improve the effectiveness of various adaptation programs, which are of benefit to both the host population and the migrants of Moscow’s multicultural metropolis. The following research questions are considered: What coping strategies are used by migrants from the North Caucasus? What is the role of ethnicity in shaping and implementing these strategies? Activating the resources of ethno-cultural networks can be a great source of hope to migrants seeking social protection and economic empowerment, but at the same time it can be source of stigma in the discourse of the dominant group. Stigmatizing discourses are reproduced by the minorities and become a powerful tool that reinforces and perpetuates ethnic boundaries, restricting access to various resources. Reliance on ethno-cultural communication is only one of the strategies employed. Others exist that can be based on ignoring ethnicity or minimizing its importance. The coping strategies that emphasise ethnicity can be implemented in a variety of ways. We outlined three such versions after analysing the comments made by participants in our focus groups. Two of them, which we term 'compensatory' and 'accusatory,' essentially serve the function of psychological protection as they focus on the in-group’s merits, while underlining the failings of the out-groups. The third version is aimed at providing of support to the members of one’s group. The implementation of strategies that minimizes the importance of ethnicity begins with acquiring negative beliefs about one’s in-group and distancing oneself from the co-ethnics group. The second step involves searching for explanations for the shortcomings of one’s co-ethnic group, which is achieved by referring to non-ethnic factors perceived as objective social factors. In other cases these issues can be sidestepped by resorting to individual resources in social adaptation and rejecting the use of group categories.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.