С.Л. Франк о русской революции и европейском кризисе XX столетия
in this article the author shows that after revolutions of XX century
for the thinking person uncertainty in all moral values becomes fundamental.
In the situation of cultural crisis, revolts of mass consciousness we clear understand
collapse of all moral ideals. Person does not know what has spiritual value in
his life. He doubts in all ideals and principles. And this uncertainty becomes the
first step to the awareness of true foundation – spiritual reality, which is opposite
to earth reality. Russian philosophers have seen the solution in the ideas of Christian
Original Russian thought came into existence fairly late - as late as the 18th and 19th centuries. Creating their own conceptions, Russian thinkers readily referred to various philosophical traditions: the Eastern Christian one as well as the schools and currents that emerged in the West. At the same time, one can observe a reverse phenomenon: Western intellectuals too - philosophers, theologians, men of letters - in one way or another would refer to the oeuvre by Russian writers. This process, which in its broadest sense can be described as the reception of Russian thought in the West (above all in Europe), was begun still in Vladimir Solovyov's lifetime (19th century) and has continued till this day. The notion of reception, employed in this publication, is quite broad in its sense. It means both the influence of Russian philosophy on the works by Western fellow writers, and the criticism and polemics undertaken by the latter, as well as the development, study and research into the thought created in the Russian milieu. All these aspects have come to be reflected in the book hereby presented for the Reader.
The present edition continues the scientific series «Literature. XX century» (issue I – “Faces and Facets of the XXth Century”, 2009; issue 2 – “Literature and War. XX Century”, 2013; issue 3 – “Literature and Ideology. XX Centu‑ ry”,, 2016) based on the materials of the International prof. Leonid Andreev memorial conferences “Faces and Facets of the XXth Century” regularly hosted by the Faculty of Philology, Lomonosov State University of Moscow (MGU). As the edition coincides with the centenary of the Russian revolu‑ tion, the major part of the papers is focused on the influence of the event on the Western and Russian literature and culture (including the Russian Émigré literature), as well as on the Soviet-Western literary and cultural contacts of the 1920–1930s. The issue also considers the impact of various XXth centu‑ ry revolutions (political, social, aesthetic, technical, etc.) over European and American literature and culture.
The paper attempts to analyse the views of Boris Poplavsky (1903-1935), an émigré poet, writer and amateur philosopher, on the historical dialectics and the role of revolutionary violence and terror. The main emphasis is laid on his essay "Lichnost' i Obschchestvo" ("Personality and Society", 1934) as its line of argument seems to be based to a certain extent on the revolutionary (in every sense of the world) interpretation of Hegel's "Phänomenologie des Geistes" by the Russian émigré philosopher Alexandre Kojève. Poplavsky acknowledges the necessity of revolutionary violence, in particular in his novel "Domoi s nebes" ("Homeward from Heaven"), possibly because of his attendance and participation in Kojève's seminar on Hegel (1933-1939) held at the Ecole pratique des hautes études in Paris. Poplavsky officially attended the seminar in the 1934-1935 academic year, though the close analysis of his essay shows that he might have participated in Kojève's classes of the previous year as well, especially the ones dedicated to Hegel's dialectics of death.
The letters of Eleanor Lord Pray (1868-1954) describe the reaction to the news of the revolution, the first rallies and demonstrations in the Far East, the revolutionary upsurge and its end, the intervention and rise to power of the Bolsheviks in 1922. Pray is often quite critical and notes her disappointment with modern society, and her look at current events reveals a regret about the past and the coming changes. The author writes about the complete absurdity of the ongoing social change and inconsistency of the revolutionaries. At the same time the enthusiasm for the possibility of a new bright future for Russia is replaced by bitter disappointment with what has happened. Special attention is given to intervention and to the relationship with the new government. In 1930, after 36 years of living in Vladivostok, finally losing all possibilities for living in Soviet Russia, Pray leaves the country forever.
The article is devoted to the study of the authoritarianism prevalent in the mass consciousness of Russians. The article describes a new approach to the consideration of the authoritarian syndrome as the effects of the cultural trauma as a result of political and socio-cultural transformation of society. The article shows the dynamics of the symptoms of the authoritarianism, which appear in the mass consciousness of Russians from 1993 to 2011. This paper proposes a package of measures aimed at reducing the level of the authoritarianism in Russian society.
This work looks at a model of spatial election competition with two candidates who can spend effort in order to increase their popularity through advertisement. It is shown that under certain condition the political programs of the candidates will be different. The work derives the comparative statics of equilibrium policy platform and campaign spending with respect the distribution of voter policy preferences and the proportionality of the electoral system. In particular, it is whown that the equilibrium does not exist if the policy preferences are distributed over too narrow an interval.
The article examines "regulatory requirements" as a subject of state control over business in Russia. The author deliberately does not use the term "the rule of law". The article states that a set of requirements for business is wider than the legislative regulation.
First, the article analyzes the regulatory nature of the requirements, especially in the technical field. The requirements are considered in relation to the rule of law. The article explores approaches to the definition of regulatory requirements in Russian legal science. The author analyzes legislation definitions for a set of requirements for business. The author concludes that regulatory requirements are not always identical to the rule of law. Regulatory requirements are a set of obligatory requirements for entrepreneurs’ economic activity. Validation failure leads to negative consequences.
Second, the article analyzes the problems of the regulatory requirements in practice. Lack of information about the requirements, their irrelevance and inconsistency are problems of the regulatory requirements in Russia.
Many requirements regulating economic activity are not compatible with the current development level of science and technology. The problems are analyzed on the basis of the Russian judicial practice and annual monitoring reports by Higher School of Economics.
Finally, the author provides an approach to the possible solution of the regulatory requirements’ problem. The author proposes to create a nationwide Internet portal about regulatory requirements. The portal should contain full information about all regulatory requirements. The author recommends extending moratorium on the use of the requirements adopted by the bodies and organizations of the former USSR government.