Mesoscopic supercurrent fluctuations in diffusive magnetic Josephson junctions
We study the supercurrent in quasi-one-dimensional Josephson junctions with a weak link involving magnetism, either via magnetic impurities or via ferromagnetism. In the case of weak links longer than the magnetic pair-breaking length, the Josephson effect is dominated by mesoscopic fluctuations. We establish the supercurrent-phase dependence I(φ) along with statistics of its sample-dependent properties in junctions with transparent contacts between leads and link. High transparency gives rise to the inverse proximity effect, while the direct proximity effect is suppressed by magnetism in the link. We find that all harmonics are present in I(φ). Each harmonic has its own sample-dependent amplitude and phase shift with no correlation between different harmonics. Depending on the type of magnetic weak link, the system can realize a φ0 or φ junction in the fluctuational regime. Full supercurrent statistics is obtained at arbitrary relation between temperature, superconducting gap, and the Thouless energy of the weak link.
We developed the model of the internal phonon bottleneck to describe the energy exchange between the acoustically soft ultrathin metal film and acoustically rigid substrate. Discriminating phonons in the film into two groups, escaping and nonescaping, we show that electrons and nonescaping phonons may form a unified subsystem, which is cooled down only due to interactions with escaping phonons, either due to direct phonon conversion or indirect sequential interaction with an electronic system. Using an amplitude-modulated absorption of the sub-THz radiation technique,we studied electron-phonon relaxation in ultrathin disordered films of tungsten silicide.We found an experimental proof of the internal phonon bottleneck. The experiment and simulation based on the proposed model agree well, resulting in τe−ph ∼ 140–190 ps at TC = 3.4K, supporting the results of earlier measurements by independent techniques.
The thermodynamical potential of a superconducting quantum cylinder is calculated. The dependence of the critical temperature and the heat capacity of a superconducting system of the surface concentration of electrons and on the radius of the nanotube is studied.
These notes have appeared as a result of a one-term course in superfluidity and superconductivity given by the author to fourth-year undergraduate students and first-year graduate students of the Department of Physics, Moscow State University of Education. The goal was not to give a detailed picture of these two macroscopic quantum phenomena with an extensive coverage of the experimental background and all the modern developments, but rather to show how the knowledge of undergraduate quantum mechanics and statistical physics could be used to discuss the basic concepts and simple problems, and draw parallels between superconductivity and superfluidity.
Superconductivity and superfluidity are two phenomena where quantum mechanics, typically constrained to the microscopic realm, shows itself on the macroscopic level. Conceptually and mathematically, these phenomena are related very closely, and some results obtained for one can, with a few modifications, be immediately carried over to the other. However, the student of these notes should be aware of important differences between superconductivity and superfluidity that stem mainly from two facts: (1) electrons in a superconductor carry a charge, therefore one has to take into account interaction with electromagnetic radiation; (2) electrons move in a lattice, therefore phonons play a role not only a mediators of attractive interaction between pairs of electrons, but also as scatterers of charge carriers.
Although these are notes on superfluidity and superconductivity, and there are a few cross-references, the two subjects can be studied independently with, perhaps, a little extra work by the student to fill in the gaps resulting from such study. The material of Chapter 1 introduces the method of second quantisation that is commonly used to discuss systems with many interacting particles. It is then applied in Chaper 2 to treat the uniform weakly interacting Bose gas within the approach by N. Bogoliubov, and in Chapter 4 to formulate the theory of the uniform superconducting state put forth by J. Bardeen, L. Cooper and R. Schrieffer. Chapter 3 presents the theory proposed independently by E. Gross and L. Pitaevskii of a non-uniform weakly interacting Bose gas, with a discussion of vortices, rotation of the condensate, and the Bogoliubov equations. In Chapter 5 we discuss the Ginzburd-Landau theory of a non-uniform superconductor near the critical temperature and apply it to a few simple problems such as the surface energy of the boundary between a normal metal and a superconductor, critical current and critical magnetic field, and vortices.
Overview This book concisely presents the latest trends in the physics of superconductivity and superfluidity and magnetismin novel systems, as well as the problem of BCS-BEC crossover in ultracold quantum gases and high-Tc superconductors. It further illuminates the intensive exchange of ideas between these closely related fields of condensed matter physics over the last 30 years of their dynamic development. The content is based on the author’s original findings obtained at the Kapitza Institute, as well as advanced lecture courses he held at the Moscow Engineering Physical Institute, Amsterdam University, Loughborough University and LPTMS Orsay between 1994 and 2011. In addition to the findings of his group, the author discusses the most recent concepts in these fields, obtained both in Russia and in the West. The book consists of 16 chapters which are divided into four parts. The first part describes recent developments in superfluid hydrodynamics of quantum fluids and solids, including the fashionable subject of possible supersolidity in quantum crystals of 4He, while the second describes BCS-BEC crossover in quantum Fermi-Bose gases and mixtures, as well as in the underdoped states of cuprates. The third part is devoted to non-phonon mechanisms of superconductivity in unconventional (anomalous) superconductors, including some important aspects of the theory of high-Tc superconductivity. |The last part considers the anomalous normal state of novel superconductive materials and materials with colossal magnetoresistance (CMR). The book offers a valuable guide for senior-level undergraduate students and graduate students, postdoctoral and other researchers specializing in solid-state and low-temperature physics.
Recently bright-light control of the SSPD has been demonstrated. This attack employed a "backdoor" in the detector biasing scheme. Under bright-light illumination, SSPD becomes resistive and remains "latched" in the resistive state even when the light is switched off. While the SSPD is latched, Eve can simulate SSPD single-photon response by sending strong light pulses, thus deceiving Bob. We developed the experimental setup for investigation of a dependence on latching threshold of SSPD on optical pulse length and peak power. By knowing latching threshold it is possible to understand essential requirements for development countermeasures against blinding attack on quantum key distribution system with SSPDs.
We demonstrate evidence of coherent magnetic flux tunneling through superconducting nanowires patterned in a thin highly disordered NbN film. The phenomenon is revealed as a superposition of flux states in a fully metallic superconducting loop with the nanowire acting as an effective tunnel barrier for the magnetic flux, and reproducibly observed in different wires. The flux superposition achieved in the fully metallic NbN rings proves the universality of the phenomenon previously reported for InOx .We perform microwave spectroscopy and study the tunneling amplitude as a function of the wire width, compare the experimental results with theories, and estimate the parameters for existing theoretical models.
The dynamics of a two-component Davydov-Scott (DS) soliton with a small mismatch of the initial location or velocity of the high-frequency (HF) component was investigated within the framework of the Zakharov-type system of two coupled equations for the HF and low-frequency (LF) fields. In this system, the HF field is described by the linear Schrödinger equation with the potential generated by the LF component varying in time and space. The LF component in this system is described by the Korteweg-de Vries equation with a term of quadratic influence of the HF field on the LF field. The frequency of the DS soliton`s component oscillation was found analytically using the balance equation. The perturbed DS soliton was shown to be stable. The analytical results were confirmed by numerical simulations.
By using superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometry, we investigated anisotropic high-field (H less than or similar to 7T) low-temperature (10 K) magnetization response of inhomogeneous nanoisland FeNi films grown by rf sputtering deposition on Sitall (TiO2) glass substrates. In the grown FeNi films, the FeNi layer nominal thickness varied from 0.6 to 2.5 nm, across the percolation transition at the d(c) similar or equal to 1.8 nm. We discovered that, beyond conventional spin-magnetism of Fe21Ni79 permalloy, the extracted out-of-plane magnetization response of the nanoisland FeNi films is not saturated in the range of investigated magnetic fields and exhibits paramagnetic-like behavior. We found that the anomalous out-of-plane magnetization response exhibits an escalating slope with increase in the nominal film thickness from 0.6 to 1.1 nm, however, it decreases with further increase in the film thickness, and then practically vanishes on approaching the FeNi film percolation threshold. At the same time, the in-plane response demonstrates saturation behavior above 1.5-2T, competing with anomalously large diamagnetic-like response, which becomes pronounced at high magnetic fields. It is possible that the supported-metal interaction leads to the creation of a thin charge-transfer (CT) layer and a Schottky barrier at the FeNi film/Sitall (TiO2) interface. Then, in the system with nanoscale circular domains, the observed anomalous paramagnetic-like magnetization response can be associated with a large orbital moment of the localized electrons. In addition, the inhomogeneous nanoisland FeNi films can possess spontaneous ordering of toroidal moments, which can be either of orbital or spin origin. The system with toroidal inhomogeneity can lead to anomalously strong diamagnetic-like response. The observed magnetization response is determined by the interplay between the paramagnetic-and diamagnetic-like contributions.
Radiation conditions are described for various space regions, radiation-induced effects in spacecraft materials and equipment components are considered and information on theoretical, computational, and experimental methods for studying radiation effects are presented. The peculiarities of radiation effects on nanostructures and some problems related to modeling and radiation testing of such structures are considered.