Связь ценностных ориентаций современных подростков с психологическими характеристиками их учителей и родителей
The article presents the results of a large-scale study of value-motivational orientation identity of adolescents living in various regions of the Russian Federation in connection with the characteristics of the social situation of development (family, school). The data obtained in the study allows to identify the most appropriate formation procedures aimed at development of adolescent orientation in value aspects of social relations. Such concepts as morality, value orientations are increasingly used in describing the development trends in society, forming the worldview of the younger generation; the relevant questions are: how is the process of formation of human moral values going; what factors determine the direction and dynamics of this process? The study involved 2731 teenager (46.1% male, 53.9% female) from different regions of the Russian Federation (total 6 sites); 937 parents of adolescents; 125 teachers. Every site included 2 cities, distinguished by population and by status (one of the city is a regional capital). The identified connections of value orientations of students with various psychological characteristics of teachers and parents tell about the adverse trends in the formation of value-moral spheres of adolescents and bring to the fore the problem of working with these characteristics.
The article considers a problem of the relationship of television preferences and value orientations of the Russians. The results of concrete sociological research, conducted by the author in 2013, are presented. This research, based on a nationwide survey on a representative sample of 1,600 people, was realized in frame of the project "Social and Cultural Role of the Russian TV in the National Information Space" under the auspices of the Federal Agency for Press and Mass Communication of the Russian Federation.
This study analyzes the phenomenology of socio-psychological capital viewed as a resource for psychological relations which constitutes the basis for the formation of social capital. A cross-cultural analysis of the impact of value orientations on socio-psychological capital has been performed. Based on a sample of 3 ethnic groups (Russians, n = 103; Chechens, n = 100; Ingush, n = 109), it has been demonstrated that although the impact of individual values on socio-psychological capital obeys logic, it may be culture-specific. Values of Self-Transcendence (Benevolence and Universalism) have a positive impact on the socio-psychological capital of a multicultural society, whereas values of Self-Enhancement influence it negatively. Openness to Change values positively influence civic identity but have a negative effect on perceived social capital. Conservation values positively affect the civic (Russian) identity of the representatives of the Ingush ethnic group.
International student admission allows not only to universally popularize Russian education but also to replenish human capital assets at an easy rate and to solve the problem of demographic pit at the expense of fresh graduates willing to permanently move to Russia after their graduation. The CIS states are currently the main source of enrollees willing to obtain higher education in Russia. The paper specifies the differences in socio-demographic characteristics and value orientations of those students who want to move permanently to Russia, to get back to their home country or to move permanently to any other country. Based on the survey involving 262 students from the CIS countries studying in the Moscow universities, the study shows that students with different migration intentions have substantial differences in value orientations according to the Schwartz Value Survey data; they also differ by their socio-demographic characteristics such as parents’ education level, household income and national identity.
The article presents an investigation of the connection between self-image and the value-motivational orientation of delinquent adolescents in comparison with normatively developing adolescents. Delinquency among minors and young people is one of the most pressing social problems all over the world. Asocial behavior patterns and habits acquired at an early age in the absence of correction along the way can lead to a severe deformation of personality and the growth of recidivism. As such, it is imperative to study the mechanisms of the formation of deviant behavior. The connection between unlawful behavior of adolescents and the specifics of their self-image and value orientation is doubtless, however, this aspect is insufficiently elaborated academically. The article presents a study aimed at revealing the features of these associations in normatively developing and delinquent adolescents. The study involved 90 adolescents aged from 14 to 17. Of these 54% were boys, 46% were girls. The adolescents were divided into 3 groups: students of the 9th grade of general education schools, students of the 11th grade of general education schools, and delinquent adolescents who are registered with the Department of Juvenile Affairs. The peculiarities of the association between self-image and the value-motivational orientation of the personality of delinquent adolescents identified in the study will help in improving the system of prevention of neglect and juvenile delinquency.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.