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Античные и средневековые теории сперматогенеза в философии Марсилио Фичино

Платоновские исследования. 2019. Т. X. № 1. С. 134-157.
Гурьянов И. Г.

The paper examines in some detail Ficino’s relation to the concept of λόγοι σπερματικοί, literally ‘seminal reasons’, discussed in his Ancient and Christian sources. The concept was used metaphysically to indicate the links between species in matter and ideas in mind but its connotations made it useful for embryological discussion. Ficino supposes that the World Soul producing specific forms and powers of lower things makes them through her own seminal reasons, which remain in touchwith celestial and supercelestial entities. It is probably Plotinus who legitimates Ficino’s use of the concept of seminal reasons, although historically, it is a concept of Stoicism. Employing ‘seeds’ as a metaphor for ideas, Plotinus strongly criticizes the Stoic concept of seminal reasons, according to which seminal formative principles are corporeal and immanent to the things. Ficino’s use of embryological metaphors and direct analogies between the action of generating force in the human body and inthe ‘body’ of the world serves to explain how a purely intelligible essence (the World Soul) produces material things. However, Plotinus, in contrast to Ficino, never gives such detailed attention to the discussion of the purely material conditions of conception, such as the combination of moisture and heat. Peripathetic natural philosophyand the natural philosophy of Proclus provide a more adequate background for the medical and astrological reasoning in some parts of Ficino’s De vita. In the paper, I arguethat the ‘seminal reasons’ as metaphysical intermediaries should be related to other well-known metaphysical intermediaries in Ficino’s philosophy (spiritus, vis, virtus).