Вариабельность и возрастные особенности анатомии срединных структур передних отделов основания черепа
The article presents the literature data on the structural variability and age-related features of the midline anatomical structures of the anterior skull base (frontal sinus, ethmoid bone, anterior parasellar region, and medial orbital wall). This is the area of surgical interests of neurosurgeons and rhinosurgeons. The study objective is to analyze the literature data on the individual variability and age-related anatomy of these structures. The work is illustrated with original images from the authors’ personal archive. The individual anatomical features of eloquent structures in the surgical area (structures within the surgical corridor, key anatomical landmarks, optic tract, internal carotid and ethmoidal arteries, etc.) should be considered in planning surgery in patients of all age groups because they can limit the view and the amount of safe manipulations or increase the risk of complications. The presented data may be useful for neurosurgeons and otolaryngologists whose surgical interests are focused on the midline structures of the anterior skull base.
With a view to early detection of statistical instability of water quality, it is necessary to analyze the probability of deviations of parameters under inspection from their most probable values. It is shown the outlook of using in this case time-frame inspection charts enabling to fix with high reliability the exit of the system from sustainable state, and on this basis to make management decisions, such as on the transfer of water management into emergency mode of operation or on the need to find the source of instability.
Background. Many tumors of different histologic structure originate from the anterior skull base. These lesions may be highly vascularized leading to limited resection and severe intraoperative blood loss. Midline tumors are primarily supplied by ethmoidal arteries, which are not subject to endovascular embolization. Aim of this study was comparative experimental analysis of different surgical approaches to the ethmoidal arteries.
Materials and methods. The anatomical study was performed on 12 fresh human cadavers without diseases involving the anterior skull base, orbits, and paranasal sinuses (24 sides). In all specimens internal and external carotid arteries were injected by silicone dye. Anatomical dissection was carried on investigating four different minimally invasive endoscopic approaches to the ethmoidal arteries: 1) transorbital approach to the ethmoidal arteries via bicoronal incision; 2) pre/trans/retrocaruncular approach to the ethmoidal arteries; 3) endoscopic endonasal transethmoidal approach to the canals of ethmoidal arteries; 4) endoscopic endonasal transethmoidal-transorbital approach to the ethmoidal arteries in the orbit.
Results. Surgical technique of the mentioned approaches was described, and their advantages and disadvantages were analyzed. We propose the algorithm for selection of direct endoscopic ligation of ethmoidal arteries based on selected surgical approach for tumor resection and its extracranial extension.
Conclusion. Decision making for tumor devascularization must be substantiated by visualization of vasculature (CT or MR angiography). The study has demonstrated advantages and disadvantages of different endoscopic approaches to the ethmoidal arteries for their ligation aiming at early devascularization of anterior skull base lesions. All four are minimally invasive and provide good functional outcome and cosmesis.
The Ustja dialect belongs to the Vologda dialect group. The latter has a well documented realization of the etymological *ê as [i] between palatalized consonants, under stress. Among contemporary speakers, *ê in this context may be realized either as [i] (the dialectal variant) or as [e] (standard Russian). No speaker who only uses the dialectal variant has been recorded. The paper focuses on how particular wordforms and the speaker’s age correlate with the variation between the dialectal vs. standard realization.
While variability of the motor responses to transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is widely acknowledged, little is known about its central origin. One plausible explanation for such variability may relate to different neuronal states defining the reactivity of the cortex to TMS. In this study intrinsic spatio-temporal neuronal dynamics were estimated with Long-Range Temporal Correlations (LRTC) in order to predict the inter-individual differences in the strength of intra-cortical facilitation (ICF) and short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) produced by paired-pulse TMS (ppTMS) of the left primary motor cortex. LRTC in the alpha frequency range were assessed from multichannel electroencephalography (EEG) obtained at rest before and after the application of and single-pulse TMS (spTMS) and ppTMS protocols. For the EEG session, preceding TMS application, we showed a positive correlation across subjects between the strength of ICF and LRTC in the fronto-central and parietal areas. This in turn attests to the existence of subject-specific neuronal phenotypes defining the reactivity of the brain to ppTMS. In addition, we also showed that ICF was associated with the changes in neuronal dynamics in the EEG session after the application of the stimulation. This result provides a complementary evidence for the recent findings demonstrating that the cortical stimulation with sparse non-regular stimuli might have considerable long-lasting effects on the cortical activity.
Proceedings of the conference "Molecular basis of epidemiology, diagnosis, prevention and treatment of current infections" 4-6 December 2018
Importance Cancer and other noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are now widely recognized as a threat to global development. The latest United Nations high-level meeting on NCDs reaffirmed this observation and also highlighted the slow progress in meeting the 2011 Political Declaration on the Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases and the third Sustainable Development Goal. Lack of situational analyses, priority setting, and budgeting have been identified as major obstacles in achieving these goals. All of these have in common that they require information on the local cancer epidemiology. The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study is uniquely poised to provide these crucial data.
Objective To describe cancer burden for 29 cancer groups in 195 countries from 1990 through 2017 to provide data needed for cancer control planning.
Evidence Review We used the GBD study estimation methods to describe cancer incidence, mortality, years lived with disability, years of life lost, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs). Results are presented at the national level as well as by Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a composite indicator of income, educational attainment, and total fertility rate. We also analyzed the influence of the epidemiological vs the demographic transition on cancer incidence.
Findings In 2017, there were 24.5 million incident cancer cases worldwide (16.8 million without nonmelanoma skin cancer [NMSC]) and 9.6 million cancer deaths. The majority of cancer DALYs came from years of life lost (97%), and only 3% came from years lived with disability. The odds of developing cancer were the lowest in the low SDI quintile (1 in 7) and the highest in the high SDI quintile (1 in 2) for both sexes. In 2017, the most common incident cancers in men were NMSC (4.3 million incident cases); tracheal, bronchus, and lung (TBL) cancer (1.5 million incident cases); and prostate cancer (1.3 million incident cases). The most common causes of cancer deaths and DALYs for men were TBL cancer (1.3 million deaths and 28.4 million DALYs), liver cancer (572 000 deaths and 15.2 million DALYs), and stomach cancer (542 000 deaths and 12.2 million DALYs). For women in 2017, the most common incident cancers were NMSC (3.3 million incident cases), breast cancer (1.9 million incident cases), and colorectal cancer (819 000 incident cases). The leading causes of cancer deaths and DALYs for women were breast cancer (601 000 deaths and 17.4 million DALYs), TBL cancer (596 000 deaths and 12.6 million DALYs), and colorectal cancer (414 000 deaths and 8.3 million DALYs).
Conclusions and Relevance The national epidemiological profiles of cancer burden in the GBD study show large heterogeneities, which are a reflection of different exposures to risk factors, economic settings, lifestyles, and access to care and screening. The GBD study can be used by policy makers and other stakeholders to develop and improve national and local cancer control in order to achieve the global targets and improve equity in cancer care.
Objective: This study is to analyze fluorescence sensitivity in the diagnosis of brain and spinal cord tumors.
Material and methods: The authors conducted a multicenter retrospective analysis of data on 653 cases in 641 patients: 553 of them had brain tumors and 88 spinal cord tumors. Brain tumor resection was performed in 523 patients, of whom 484 were adults and 39 children. The analyzed series was presented by 320 gliomas, 101 meningiomas, and 72 metastases. A stereotactic biopsy was performed in 20 patients and endoscopic surgery in 10 patients. In all cases, 20 mg/kg of 5–Aminolaevulinic acid was administered orally 2-h before surgery. All surgical interventions were performed with a microscope BLUE 400 to visualize fluorescence, while endoscopic surgery—with an endoscope equipped with a fluorescent module. Fluorescence spectroscopy was conducted in 20 cases of stereotactic biopsies and in 88 cases of spinal cord tumors.
Results: Among adult brain tumors operated by microsurgical techniques, meningiomas showed the highest 5-ALA fluorescence sensitivity 94% (n = 95/101), brain metastases 84.7% (n = 61/72), low-grade gliomas 46.4% (n = 26/56), and high-grade gliomas 90.2% (n = 238/264). In children the highest 5-ALA visible fluorescence was observed in anaplastic astrocytomas 100% (n = 4/4) and in anaplastic ependymomas 100% (n = 4/4); in low-grade gliomas it made up 31.8% (n = 7/22). As for the spinal cord tumors in adults, the highest sensitivity was demonstrated by glioblastomas 100% (n = 4/4) and by meningiomas 100% (n = 4/4); Fluorescence was not found in gemangioblastomas (n = 0/6) and neurinomas (n = 0/4). Fluorescence intensity reached 60% (n = 6/10) in endoscopic surgery and 90% (n = 18/20) in stereotactic biopsy.
Conclusion: 5-ALA fluorescence diagnosis proved to be most sensitive in surgery of HGG and meningioma (90.2 and 94.1%, respectively). Sensitivity in surgery of intracranial metastases and spinal cord tumors was slightly lower (84.7 and 63.6%, correspondingly). The lowest fluorescence sensitivity was marked in pediatric tumors and LGG (50 and 46.4%, correspondingly). Fluorescence diagnosis can also be used in transnasal endoscopic surgery of skull base tumors and in stereotactic biopsy.
The study of clinical terminology has always occupied a significant place in the discipline "Latin language and outlines of medical terminology." Undoubtedly, surgical terminology is one of the most voluminous terminology in the clinical block. Moreover, there are a lot of terms used in it in other departments of the clinical direction, so-called "common" terms.
The series “Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing” contains publications on theory, applications, and design methods of Intelligent Systems and Intelligent Computing. Virtually all disciplines such as engineering, natural sciences, computer and information science, ICT, economics, business, e-commerce, environment, healthcare, life science are covered. The list of topics spans all the areas of modern intelligent systems and computing such as: computational intelligence, soft computing including neural networks, fuzzy systems, evolutionary computing and the fusion of these paradigms, social intelligence, ambient intelligence, computational neuroscience, artificial life, virtual worlds and society, cognitive science and systems, Perception and Vision, DNA and immune based systems, self-organizing and adaptive systems, e-Learning and teaching, human-centered and human-centric computing, recommender systems, intelligent control, robotics and mechatronics including human-machine teaming, knowledge-based paradigms, learning paradigms, machine ethics, intelligent data analysis, knowledge management, intelligent agents, intelligent decision making and support, intelligent network security, trust management, interactive entertainment, Web intelligence and multimedia.
The publications within “Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing” are primarily proceedings of important conferences, symposia and congresses. They cover significant recent developments in the field, both of a foundational and applicable character. An important characteristic feature of the series is the short publication time and world-wide distribution. This permits a rapid and broad dissemination of research results.
This book contains a selection of papers accepted for the presentation and discussion at the 2018 International Conference on Digital Science (DSIC’18). This Conference had the support of the Institute of Certified Specialists, Russia, AISTI (Iberian Association for Information Systems and Technologies), and Springer. It will take place at Convention Centre, Budva, Montenegro, October 19–21, 2018. DSIC’18 is an international forum for researchers and practitioners to present and discuss the most recent innovations, trends, results, experiences, and concerns in the several perspectives of Digital Science. The main idea of this Conference is that the world of science is unified and united allowing all scientists/practitioners to be able to think, analyze, and generalize their thoughts. DSIC aims efficiently to disseminate original research results in natural, social, art, and humanities sciences. An important characteristic feature of the Conference should be the short publication time and worldwide distribution. This Conference enables fast dissemination, so conference participants can publish their papers in print and electronic format, which is then made available worldwide and accessible by numerous researchers. The Scientific Committee of DSIC’18 was composed of a multidisciplinary group of 26 experts. One hundred and seven invited reviewers who are intimately concerned with Digital Science have had the responsibility for evaluating, in a “double-blind review” process, the papers received for each of the main themes proposed for the Conference: Digital Art and Humanities; Digital Economics; Digital Education; Digital Engineering; Digital Environmental Sciences; Digital Finance, Business and Banking; Digital Media; Digital Medicine, Pharma and Public Health; Digital Public Administration; Digital Technology and Applied Sciences.
DSIC’18 received 88 contributions from 16 countries around the world. The papers accepted for the presentation and discussion at the Conference are published by Springer (this book) and will be submitted for indexing by ISI, SCOPUS, among others.