Вариабельность и возрастные особенности анатомии срединных структур передних отделов основания черепа
The article presents the literature data on the structural variability and age-related features of the midline anatomical structures of the anterior skull base (frontal sinus, ethmoid bone, anterior parasellar region, and medial orbital wall). This is the area of surgical interests of neurosurgeons and rhinosurgeons. The study objective is to analyze the literature data on the individual variability and age-related anatomy of these structures. The work is illustrated with original images from the authors’ personal archive. The individual anatomical features of eloquent structures in the surgical area (structures within the surgical corridor, key anatomical landmarks, optic tract, internal carotid and ethmoidal arteries, etc.) should be considered in planning surgery in patients of all age groups because they can limit the view and the amount of safe manipulations or increase the risk of complications. The presented data may be useful for neurosurgeons and otolaryngologists whose surgical interests are focused on the midline structures of the anterior skull base.
With a view to early detection of statistical instability of water quality, it is necessary to analyze the probability of deviations of parameters under inspection from their most probable values. It is shown the outlook of using in this case time-frame inspection charts enabling to fix with high reliability the exit of the system from sustainable state, and on this basis to make management decisions, such as on the transfer of water management into emergency mode of operation or on the need to find the source of instability.
Background. Many tumors of different histologic structure originate from the anterior skull base. These lesions may be highly vascularized leading to limited resection and severe intraoperative blood loss. Midline tumors are primarily supplied by ethmoidal arteries, which are not subject to endovascular embolization. Aim of this study was comparative experimental analysis of different surgical approaches to the ethmoidal arteries.
Materials and methods. The anatomical study was performed on 12 fresh human cadavers without diseases involving the anterior skull base, orbits, and paranasal sinuses (24 sides). In all specimens internal and external carotid arteries were injected by silicone dye. Anatomical dissection was carried on investigating four different minimally invasive endoscopic approaches to the ethmoidal arteries: 1) transorbital approach to the ethmoidal arteries via bicoronal incision; 2) pre/trans/retrocaruncular approach to the ethmoidal arteries; 3) endoscopic endonasal transethmoidal approach to the canals of ethmoidal arteries; 4) endoscopic endonasal transethmoidal-transorbital approach to the ethmoidal arteries in the orbit.
Results. Surgical technique of the mentioned approaches was described, and their advantages and disadvantages were analyzed. We propose the algorithm for selection of direct endoscopic ligation of ethmoidal arteries based on selected surgical approach for tumor resection and its extracranial extension.
Conclusion. Decision making for tumor devascularization must be substantiated by visualization of vasculature (CT or MR angiography). The study has demonstrated advantages and disadvantages of different endoscopic approaches to the ethmoidal arteries for their ligation aiming at early devascularization of anterior skull base lesions. All four are minimally invasive and provide good functional outcome and cosmesis.
The Ustja dialect belongs to the Vologda dialect group. The latter has a well documented realization of the etymological *ê as [i] between palatalized consonants, under stress. Among contemporary speakers, *ê in this context may be realized either as [i] (the dialectal variant) or as [e] (standard Russian). No speaker who only uses the dialectal variant has been recorded. The paper focuses on how particular wordforms and the speaker’s age correlate with the variation between the dialectal vs. standard realization.
While variability of the motor responses to transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is widely acknowledged, little is known about its central origin. One plausible explanation for such variability may relate to different neuronal states defining the reactivity of the cortex to TMS. In this study intrinsic spatio-temporal neuronal dynamics were estimated with Long-Range Temporal Correlations (LRTC) in order to predict the inter-individual differences in the strength of intra-cortical facilitation (ICF) and short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) produced by paired-pulse TMS (ppTMS) of the left primary motor cortex. LRTC in the alpha frequency range were assessed from multichannel electroencephalography (EEG) obtained at rest before and after the application of and single-pulse TMS (spTMS) and ppTMS protocols. For the EEG session, preceding TMS application, we showed a positive correlation across subjects between the strength of ICF and LRTC in the fronto-central and parietal areas. This in turn attests to the existence of subject-specific neuronal phenotypes defining the reactivity of the brain to ppTMS. In addition, we also showed that ICF was associated with the changes in neuronal dynamics in the EEG session after the application of the stimulation. This result provides a complementary evidence for the recent findings demonstrating that the cortical stimulation with sparse non-regular stimuli might have considerable long-lasting effects on the cortical activity.
Phenazepam (bromdihydrochlorphenylbenzodiazepine) is the original Russian benzodiazepine tranquilizer belonging to 1,4-benzodiazepines. There is still limited knowledge about phenazepam's metabolic liver pathways and other pharmacokinetic features. To determine phenazepam's metabolic pathways, the study was divided into three stages: In silico modeling, in vitro experiment (cell culture study), and in vivo confirmation. In silico modeling was performed on the specialized software PASS and GUSAR to evaluate phenazepam molecule affinity to different cytochromes. The in vitro study was performed using a hepatocytes' cell culture, cultivated in a microbioreactor to produce cytochrome P450 isoenzymes. The culture medium contained specific cytochrome P450 isoforms inhibitors and substrates (for CYP2C9, CYP3A4, CYP2C19, and CYP2B6) to determine the cytochrome that was responsible for phenazepam's metabolism. We also measured CYP3A activity using the 6-betahydroxycortisol/cortisol ratio in patients. According to in silico and in vitro analysis results, the most probable metabolizer of phenazepam is CYP3A4. By the in vivo study results, CYP3A activity decreased sufficiently (from 3.8 [95% CI: 2.94-4.65] to 2.79 [95% CI: 2.02-3.55], p=0.017) between the start and finish of treatment in patients who were prescribed just phenazepam. Experimental in silico and in vivo studies confirmed that the original Russian benzodiazepine phenazepam was the substrate of CYP3A4 isoenzyme.
The review summarizes studies of chemical and biological processes occurring in human body upon exposure to coronaviruses, in particular SARS-CoV-2. The mechanisms of viral particles penetration into the cell and their replication, impact on the immune system and oxygen transport systems are considered. The mechanisms of complications occurring as a consequence of viral infection - vasculitis, thrombosis, cytokine storm and lung fibrosis are discussed. The review also includes data on the latest research in the field of small molecule medication to counteract the virus. Molecular targets and possible vectors of exploiting them are considered. The review is written primarily for specialists who want to understand the chains of activation, replication, actions and methods of protection/inhibition of SARS-CoV-2. Due to the short period of such studies, the data on complexes of small molecule compounds and possible protein targets are not numerous, but they will be useful in search and synthesis of new potentially effective drugs.
Proceedings of the conference "Molecular basis of epidemiology, diagnosis, prevention and treatment of current infections" 4-6 December 2018
The study of clinical terminology has always occupied a significant place in the discipline "Latin language and outlines of medical terminology." Undoubtedly, surgical terminology is one of the most voluminous terminology in the clinical block. Moreover, there are a lot of terms used in it in other departments of the clinical direction, so-called "common" terms.
BACKGROUND: Past research in population health trends has shown that injuries form a substantial burden of population health loss. Regular updates to injury burden assessments are critical. We report Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2017 Study estimates on morbidity and mortality for all injuries. METHODS: We reviewed results for injuries from the GBD 2017 study. GBD 2017 measured injury-specific mortality and years of life lost (YLLs) using the Cause of Death Ensemble model. To measure non-fatal injuries, GBD 2017 modelled injury-specific incidence and converted this to prevalence and years lived with disability (YLDs). YLLs and YLDs were summed to calculate disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). FINDINGS: In 1990, there were 4 260 493 (4 085 700 to 4 396 138) injury deaths, which increased to 4 484 722 (4 332 010 to 4 585 554) deaths in 2017, while age-standardised mortality decreased from 1079 (1073 to 1086) to 738 (730 to 745) per 100 000. In 1990, there were 354 064 302 (95% uncertainty interval: 338 174 876 to 371 610 802) new cases of injury globally, which increased to 520 710 288 (493 430 247 to 547 988 635) new cases in 2017. During this time, age-standardised incidence decreased non-significantly from 6824 (6534 to 7147) to 6763 (6412 to 7118) per 100 000. Between 1990 and 2017, age-standardised DALYs decreased from 4947 (4655 to 5233) per 100 000 to 3267 (3058 to 3505). INTERPRETATION: Injuries are an important cause of health loss globally, though mortality has declined between 1990 and 2017. Future research in injury burden should focus on prevention in high-burden populations, improving data collection and ensuring access to medical care.
The series “Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing” contains publications on theory, applications, and design methods of Intelligent Systems and Intelligent Computing. Virtually all disciplines such as engineering, natural sciences, computer and information science, ICT, economics, business, e-commerce, environment, healthcare, life science are covered. The list of topics spans all the areas of modern intelligent systems and computing such as: computational intelligence, soft computing including neural networks, fuzzy systems, evolutionary computing and the fusion of these paradigms, social intelligence, ambient intelligence, computational neuroscience, artificial life, virtual worlds and society, cognitive science and systems, Perception and Vision, DNA and immune based systems, self-organizing and adaptive systems, e-Learning and teaching, human-centered and human-centric computing, recommender systems, intelligent control, robotics and mechatronics including human-machine teaming, knowledge-based paradigms, learning paradigms, machine ethics, intelligent data analysis, knowledge management, intelligent agents, intelligent decision making and support, intelligent network security, trust management, interactive entertainment, Web intelligence and multimedia.
The publications within “Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing” are primarily proceedings of important conferences, symposia and congresses. They cover significant recent developments in the field, both of a foundational and applicable character. An important characteristic feature of the series is the short publication time and world-wide distribution. This permits a rapid and broad dissemination of research results.
This book contains a selection of papers accepted for the presentation and discussion at the 2018 International Conference on Digital Science (DSIC’18). This Conference had the support of the Institute of Certified Specialists, Russia, AISTI (Iberian Association for Information Systems and Technologies), and Springer. It will take place at Convention Centre, Budva, Montenegro, October 19–21, 2018. DSIC’18 is an international forum for researchers and practitioners to present and discuss the most recent innovations, trends, results, experiences, and concerns in the several perspectives of Digital Science. The main idea of this Conference is that the world of science is unified and united allowing all scientists/practitioners to be able to think, analyze, and generalize their thoughts. DSIC aims efficiently to disseminate original research results in natural, social, art, and humanities sciences. An important characteristic feature of the Conference should be the short publication time and worldwide distribution. This Conference enables fast dissemination, so conference participants can publish their papers in print and electronic format, which is then made available worldwide and accessible by numerous researchers. The Scientific Committee of DSIC’18 was composed of a multidisciplinary group of 26 experts. One hundred and seven invited reviewers who are intimately concerned with Digital Science have had the responsibility for evaluating, in a “double-blind review” process, the papers received for each of the main themes proposed for the Conference: Digital Art and Humanities; Digital Economics; Digital Education; Digital Engineering; Digital Environmental Sciences; Digital Finance, Business and Banking; Digital Media; Digital Medicine, Pharma and Public Health; Digital Public Administration; Digital Technology and Applied Sciences.
DSIC’18 received 88 contributions from 16 countries around the world. The papers accepted for the presentation and discussion at the Conference are published by Springer (this book) and will be submitted for indexing by ISI, SCOPUS, among others.