«Привезли в посулех устюжане сто рублев денег»: земские миры и центральная власть в Московском государстве 1610–1620-х гг.
The article deals with the problems related to combination and close interweaving of two mechanisms of functioning - official and unofficial (corruption) - in modern education in Russia. The assessments of illegal payments paid by households on different stages of the educational process are given in the article. The main attention is paid to the stage of entering the HEI and partly to the process of learning. Certain aspects of influence of wide spread occurrence of enrolment system based on Russian National Exam results over the illegal component of costs are demonstrated and discussed on a qualitative level. Results of representative surveys of households, interviewed regularly by «Public Opinion» Foundation and NRU - HSE ordered by Department of Education and Science of Russian Federation in 2002-2008, form the empirical basis for the article.
Purpose: communication in queues with priorities as a factor of changes in bids. Discussion: in models of waiting lines imperfect information is common, but redistributing available information betweeen agents if often ignored. Meanwhile in real life people or firms can reveal hidden characteristics of their neighbors by communicating to them. Results: estimation the value of bribe taking into account expected bribes of other agents is considered. Communication that enables to get to know relevant information is suggested. We show cases in which it reduces the amount of bribes.