О слове полусонок (родительный множественного) в “Грифельной оде” О. Э. Мандельштама
The article is concerned with the structure and the significance of the word polusonok created by O. E. Mandel’štam. The author reconstructs its derivational history and demonstrates that the word was created for expressing a plurale tantum.
Constantine Manasses’ versified Chronicle abounds in compound epithets built according to the same model: 2 simple stems from adjectives belonging to the 2nd (often contracted) declension, the 2nd stem is, as a rule, monosyllable. There are tens of epithets sharing common 2nd stem. Yet, the impression of uniformity is misleading. Among seemingly similar adjectives can be distinguished: 1. words borrowed by Manasses from the poetic tradition, 2. neologisms coined by the poet according to the existing model, and 3. words of ambiguous provenance. The article deals with the question of how Manasses himself viewed this limitless creation of new lexemes and speculates on the status of borrowings from rare sources against the backdrop of Manasses’ ability to produce on his own virtually indistinguishable epithets.
The article examines new Chinese words in relation to social situation in modern PRC. Analysis of neologisms helps to make the conclusions about the main processes taking place in the cultural, economic and social life of the community nowadays, as well as reveal those trends that will define the social and economic climate in the country in the coming years. The vocabulary of modern Chinese people, especially the young citizens, quickly adding new lexical units, which fast become widespread thanks to the Internet community. That cases that this research is based both on the new words, officially recorded in last edition of the "Dictionary of Modern Chinese Language", and on the neologisms that became popular in the Internet in recent years, but not included in the dictionary. Due to the huge number of new words that have appeared over the last decade, this study aims to allocate certain lexical units, mainly analyze those words that closely related to the reform of the social system and economic life: including the names of certain groups of citizens with atypical behavioral models, specific property or marital status. A number of neologisms also linked to the new cultural concepts and value-orientations of young people.
Keywords: neologisms, Chinese language, Chinese society, sociolinguistics, policy of birth control in PRC, language of the Internet.
The paper continues research into words denoting everyday life objects in the Russian language. This research is conducted for developing a new encyclopedic thesaurus of Russian everyday life terminology. Working on this project brings up linguistic material which leads to discovering new trends and phenomena not covered by the existing dictionaries. We discuss derivation models which gain polularity: clipped forms (komp < komp’juter ‘computer’, nout < noutbuk ‘notebook computer’, vel < velosiped ‘bicycle’, mot<motocikl ‘motorbike’), competing masculine and feminine con- tracted nouns derived from adjectival noun phrases (mobil’nik (m.) / mo- bilka (f.) < mobil’nyj telefon (m.) ‘mobile phone’, zarjadnik (m.) / zarjadka (f.) < zarjadnoe ustrojstvo (n.) ‘AC charger’), hybrid compounds (plat’e- sviter ‘sweater dress’, jubka-brjuki ‘skirt pants’, shapkosharf ‘scarf hat’, vilkolozhka ‘spork, foon’). These words vary in spelling and syntactic behav- iour. We describe a newly formed series of words denoted multifunctional objects: mfushkaZ< MFU < mnogofunkcional’noe ustrojstvo ‘MFD, multi- function device’, mul’titul ‘multitool’, centr ‘unit, set’. Explaining the need to compose frequency lists of word meanings rather than just words, we of- fer a technique for gathering such lists and provide a sample produced from our own data. We also analyze existing dictionaries and perform various experiments to study the changes in word meanings and their comparative importance for speakers. We believe that, apart from the practical usage for our lexicographic project, our results might prove interesting for research in the evolution of the Russian lexical system.
We attempt to describe the peculiarities of studying English neologisms and nonce words by means of a new research technique, offerd by modern information and communication technologies - open online dictionaries. We highlight debatable aspects of using these sources of linguistic data, including theoretical and practical issues of analyzing new words.
The article is based on observations made while working on Academic German-Russian Dictionary. Modern dictionaries are mostly based on the earlier publication, so a substantial part of the work on updating the dictionary is to overcome its inertia. The study deals with specific mechanisms for updating all parts of the dictionary entry. The example of lexicorgaphic processings of neologisms shows the principles of including new lemmas into academic bilingual dictionaries. It is emphasized that the actual frequency is not yet a sufficient basis for the lexicographic fixation of the "trendy" word in the academic dictionary. The word has to demonstrate stable frequency of use for several years. In the article, the principles of dictionary fixing of changes in the semantic structure of a word are discussed in detail. Based on the concept of lexicographical equivalence, the autors show how to update the translation part of the dictionary entry.
The paper is focused on the study of reaction of italian literature critics on the publication of the Boris Pasternak's novel "Doctor Jivago". The analysys of the book ""Doctor Jivago", Pasternak, 1958, Italy" (published in Russian language in "Reka vremen", 2012, in Moscow) is given. The papers of italian writers, critics and historians of literature, who reacted immediately upon the publication of the novel (A. Moravia, I. Calvino, F.Fortini, C. Cassola, C. Salinari ecc.) are studied and analised.
In the article the patterns of the realization of emotional utterances in dialogic and monologic speech are described. The author pays special attention to the characteristic features of the speech of a speaker feeling psychic tension and to the compositional-pragmatic peculiarities of dialogic and monologic text.