Динамика социального капитала в России
Collection included scientific articles of Russian and German authors covering wide spectrum of topics, connected with citizenship in Russia and European Union member-states. Authors consider issues of social integration and legal status of migrants, civic participation, democratic citizenship culture and civil self-consciousness both in Russia and European Union. This book oriented on scientists, researchers, PhD and MA students in sociological, historical and political sciences.
The article is focused on the problem of the legislative regulation of the consideration of child's opinion with regard to the issues of his/her family upbringing as well related to the civil participation. Key norms of Russian legislation along with practice of its implementation are analyzed. The analysis of the major obstacles to the realization of the child’s participation in public life in Russia is given, an amendment to the legislation is proposed.
It is on the basis of modern approaches provided by the new institutional theory that in the present article the institution of civil participation is reappraised as an integral phenomenon securing inclusion of citizens into the political government process. Characterization and analysis of the evolution and of the current state of the institution of civil participation are offered. As is demonstrated by the investigation developed, there are few real public entities, and civil entities are in minority. Nevertheless civil entities, because they possess qualities of a competent political actor, of a self-dependent subject of politics, with welldeveloped social practical skills, are able to form - and in reality do form - a new, not an imitative, but a real institution of civil participation oriented at citizens needs for influencing the process of political decision-making.
In article it is shown, that one of the major resources of formation of civilization is civil identity - an element of consciousness of the person. The analysis of dynamics of expressiveness civil ѓ under influence of social and economic conditions is carried out. Results comparative the subjective senses put in concept civil identity are considered by representatives of the various countries.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.