Современная эмиграция из России и формирование русскоговорящих сообществ за рубежом
The article identifies and describes three new waves of emigration from Russia after the collapse of the USSR on the basis of prevailing push factors and the socio-demographic structure of emigrant flows. The authors examine regional and socio-demographic features of modern emigration flows from Russia. It is noted that the socio-economic factors which determine these emigration processes are becoming more significant. The article considers the shortcomings of national and foreign sources of statistical data on the number of Russian emigrants. An approximate estimate of the number of Russian-speaking migrants outside of the country is provided on the basis of comparison between domestic and foreign statistical sources. The geography of migration lows from Russia are revealed, including a description of priority countries for the resettlement of Russian emigrants. The peculiarities of their employment, resettlement, socioeconomic adaptation are highlighted. The features of resettlement and employment of Russian citizens in various regions and countries of the world are noted. The main channels of emigration are estimated. Emigration channels for permanent residence and temporary labor migration are singled out. New channels of emigration are also described: marriage emigration, the adoption of children by foreign citizens, educational emigrants, refugees and others. Several approaches to the identification of the Russian-speaking population abroad, which are used by experts and state structures, are described. There are several types of identification of Russian-speaking migrants abroad based on different approaches. The consequences of emigration for the Russian Federation are singled out on the basis of three methods of estimating economic losses. A certain evolution of the emigration policy of Russia during the recent history of the country is considered. In particular, the transition of the immigration policy from an indifferent attitude towards emigrants and the diaspora to an active interaction with them is noted.