Современная эмиграция из России и формирование русскоговорящих сообществ за рубежом
The article identifies and describes three new waves of emigration from Russia after the collapse of the USSR on the basis of prevailing push factors and the socio-demographic structure of emigrant flows. The authors examine regional and socio-demographic features of modern emigration flows from Russia. It is noted that the socio-economic factors which determine these emigration processes are becoming more significant. The article considers the shortcomings of national and foreign sources of statistical data on the number of Russian emigrants. An approximate estimate of the number of Russian-speaking migrants outside of the country is provided on the basis of comparison between domestic and foreign statistical sources. The geography of migration lows from Russia are revealed, including a description of priority countries for the resettlement of Russian emigrants. The peculiarities of their employment, resettlement, socioeconomic adaptation are highlighted. The features of resettlement and employment of Russian citizens in various regions and countries of the world are noted. The main channels of emigration are estimated. Emigration channels for permanent residence and temporary labor migration are singled out. New channels of emigration are also described: marriage emigration, the adoption of children by foreign citizens, educational emigrants, refugees and others. Several approaches to the identification of the Russian-speaking population abroad, which are used by experts and state structures, are described. There are several types of identification of Russian-speaking migrants abroad based on different approaches. The consequences of emigration for the Russian Federation are singled out on the basis of three methods of estimating economic losses. A certain evolution of the emigration policy of Russia during the recent history of the country is considered. In particular, the transition of the immigration policy from an indifferent attitude towards emigrants and the diaspora to an active interaction with them is noted.
Article analyzes the position of famous naturalist Vladimir Vernadsky in period 1917-1918, and his active participation in the reorganization of university education in Petrograd Provisional government , and in revolutionary Kiev . Vernadsky opponents in Kiev were as nationally minded Ukrainian intellectuals (like historian Hrushevsky ) and conservative professors former Imperial University of St.. Vladimir in Kiev . These contradictions and conflicts affected and then on different assessments " academic revolution " in Kiev and Ukraine among Ukrainian and Russian emigration after 1922.
Seit Ende des 19. Jahrhunderts, vor allem aber seit Anfang der 1920er Jahre war Berlin für Juden aus Osteuropa Zuflucht und Zwischenstation. Die deutsche Metropole wurde eines der größten Migrationszentren in Europa. Die jüdischen Einwanderer aus Osteuropa waren zumeist Kriegs-, Pogrom- und Revolutionsflüchtlinge. Sie unterschieden sich nach Sozialstatus ebenso wie nach kulturellen und politischen Optionen. Verbunden waren sie jedoch durch Erinnerungen an das, was sie erlebt und zurückgelassen hatten. Viele der Migranten lebten im Scheunenviertel, andere im bürgerlichen Charlottenburg, das aufgrund des hohen russischen Anteils der Bevölkerung auch Charlottengrad genannt wurde. Das erlebte Leid und die Erfahrungen in der Fremde trennten die Flüchtlinge von der deutschen Gesellschaft. Gleichzeitig kam es aber - vor allem in Kreisen der Arbeiterbewegung und der Literaturavantgarde - zu Verflechtungen und Wechselwirkungen west- und osteuropäischer Einflüsse. Die Einwanderer machten Berlin zu einem Zentrum jüdischer Kultur und waren zugleich Teil der multikulturellen Stadtlandschaft. Ihre Erfahrungen, Weltwahrnehmungen und Überlebensstrategien in der Großstadt stehen im Mittelpunkt des Bandes. Etwa die Hälfte der Beiträge ist in englischer Sprache verfasst.
This paper investigates the language situation in Moscow schools with an ethnocultural component – a new form of national schools. The analysis is based on interviews which were recorded in 2007, in two Moscow schools, one of them with Armenian ethno-cultural component, and the other, with Azeri. The sample included ten students from each school (five boys and five girls).
In the paper the process of linguistic integration of Azeri and Armenian children into modern Russian society is analyzed. The comparison between these two groups is particularly appealing, because the effects of Soviet Russification, and the language situations in general, were different in Armenia and in Azerbaijan. I show that this difference influences the use of language by Azeri and Armenian children.
This two-part overview of contemporary Russian anthropology focuses in detail on the work of several scholars and situates it in the changing landscape of Russian academia. The main issue I address is debates about an academic identity of Russian anthropology as ‘historical science’. Given that in Western anthropology, history has become one of the leading modes of anthropological analysis and that the turn to history marked a radical repositioning of anthropology’s very subject, it is important to explore how such configurations of history and anthropology work in other anthropological traditions and what the reasons are for turning to history or, conversely, avoiding it, for specific national, continental and transnational anthropological schools. In this article, I explore these questions by focusing on anthropology in Russia with an aim of reassembling the relationship between anthropology and history from the point of view of the anthropology of time. I ask what temporal frameworks underscore the relationship between anthropology and history. I explore these understandings ethnographically, that is, through ethnographic interviews with Russian scholars in addition to close readings of their works.
The book is dedicated to the 100th anniversary of Russian parliamentarism. The analysis of historical experience and actual problems of development of parliamentarism in Russia, Germany and a number of other European countries is presented. The authors are leading Russian and foreign experts from a number of research centers in Russia and Europe. Materials on the analysis of the development of parliamentarism in Germany and other European countries are based on the results of the European project "Parliamentary representation in Europe: recruiting and the career of legislators in 1848-2005", implemented during the last decade.
The book is addressed to a wide range of readers - scientists, politicians, public servants, teachers and students, everyone who is interested in the history and modern experience of Russian and European parliamentarism.
Russia’s policy towards Northeast Asia cannot be understood independently of its general Asian strategy, primarily its pivot to Asia, which has practically become an official policy after 2014. We are witnessing two contradictory tendencies in Washington and Seoul. The Trump administration seeks to assume a tougher stance on North Korea. At the same time, South Korea’s new government is likely to be more moderate towards Pyongyang. At the same time Russian experts expressed considerable hope.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.