Стратификация по жизненным шансам массовых слоев современного российского общества
Specifics of stratification model of mass strata in Russian society, based on the M. Veber ideas of the positive and negative privileges of different strata, are analyzed. It is demonstrated that the Russian population is divided into three main strata – top one (15%), whose position and well-being are qualitatively different from the rest of population, and relatively close to each other average (55%) and lower (30%) strata. Over the years, the average stratum grows, while the upper one shrinks even in conditions of the fall in the standard of living of the average Russian (that took place during the years of the last economic crisis), and the lower stratum decreases as well, but mainly due to the fall of this standard. It is shown that three defined strata differ in professional and educational status of its representatives, in their satisfaction with various aspects of their life, property characteristics, etc. The greatest polarization currently characterizes life chances of different strata representatives in their employment and access to the channels for preserving and increasing their human capital. This will contribute to the further preservation of the differences between representatives of different strata and to gradual social closure of their borders, although they currently are sufficiently permeable. According to deprivations, the greatest polarization of the upper and lower strata characterizes the features of their consumption and leisure. It has been demonstrated that the consistency of the status characteristics of different strata is relatively low (with the exception of the power status), and as a result, inequality in life chances is much smoother than income inequality. It is also shown that the share of the poor "by income", defined by Federal State Statistics Service (Rosstat), is several times less than the actually deprived part of the population, which is not capable of leading a typical way of life for the average Russian.