Суррогатное материнство в России и в мире: правовые вопросы и векторы социологических исследований. Круглый стол Лаборатории экономико-социологических исследований, 22 февраля 2018 г. Москва, Россия
This chapter addresses the relationship between class, family and social welfare policies by analysing the construction of the identity category of ‘unfortunate families’ in popular scientific discourses, governmental policy documents and discourses of social services, and by examining how those labelled as ‘unfortunate’ negotiate this identity conferred to them. The chapter shows that gender and class are closely intertwined in the production of this identity, as it is single mothers who are primarily categorized as ‘unfortunate’. In our analysis we draw on multiple sources of data. First, we analyse in-depth and focus group interviews with service providers and clients and participant observation data from a number of Russian cities. Second, we analyse various government documents and social advertisements, mass media materials, social policy and social work textbooks, and popular scientific texts published during the 1990s-2000s.
The present Collective monograph includes three sections: philology, methodology of teaching foreign languages and literary criticism. Issues presented in the monograph are relevant and will be of interest not only to a narrow circle of lexicologists, lexicographers, translation theorists, methodologists and specialist in literature but all philologists, Latin languages, Germanic and specialists in Russian philology.
The paper deals with an axiological dimension in discourse studies. It presents different theories of values in Russian and European scientific research, focuses on the heuristic potential of values and value studies for discourse analyses. Specifically, the two traditional strategies in political discourse, i.e. identification and out-casting, are analyzed vis-à-vis the category of value. It is contended that values are integrated in discourse, with ‘discourse’ construed as a ‘way of speaking which gives meaning to experiences from a particular perspective’. Values are defined as notions about ideal states of affairs tied to specific social practices as instantiated in their respective discourses in the abovementioned sense. These discourse-specific values, as common-sense, taken-for-granted, notions of excellence, control verbalization processes. An ‘out-group’ is thus always represented textually out of the discourse-driven system of values of an in-group. An in-group system of values pre-frames word choice, attitudes and evaluations in a text/texts, with an out-group system of values being automatically ruled out.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.
This article is talking about state management and cultural policy, their nature and content in term of the new tendency - development of postindustrial society. It mentioned here, that at the moment cultural policy is the base of regional political activity and that regions can get strong competitive advantage if they are able to implement cultural policy successfully. All these trends can produce elements of new economic development.