Проекты сохранения личной памяти: цифровые архивы и культура участия
This article discusses the phenomenon of Russian digital projects to preserve personal memories, which include “Oral History”, “European Memory about the GULAG”, the Obninsk digital project, PastVu, Relikva, etc. The goal of the research is to answer the question whether these projects are able to form public alternatives to official constructions of the past and ways in which that past is to be studied. The qualitative research is theoretically and methodologically based on notions of memory theory, public and digital history as well as media memory and digital network memory. Problems of participatory culture in digital historical projects are also studied. The authors put forward an analytical model based on uncovering the aims and themes of digital projects, the particulars of their funding, the role of professional historians and the participatory practices of the audience.
The features of two information systems devoted to the publications of archival documents on the history of Russian serving elite of XVII–XVIII centuries are studied for foresighting the typical problems in similar projects. The main tasks of net- 95 work publications of historical sources are the most correct transfer of the structure and text of the document, the development of electronic finding aids, and setting up computer systems navigation. The preparation of electronic edition of archival documents should have several basic phases, such as reasonable choice of the technology for electronic publication and published documents, the search for the best way of transliteration of the text, the researcher’s work with the originals of historical documents for correction of electronic text, and a description of documents. Application and experience of using the projects are listed and evaluated.
To date, Russian cosplay community has thousand members from all over the country, and the word "cosplay" is widely used in media. Despite its prominence, cosplay remains a fan practice or, using Henry Jenkins’ term, participatory practice. In participatory culture (or cultures) fans not only consume media content but actively interpret it and make their own. This article attempts to restore the history of Russian cosplay – its development and its perception. Using media publications from newspapers and magazines that are not directly related to mass culture, we gain a view from outside the community and analyze different context of the usage of the word "cosplay". In sum, we try to answer the question if russian cosplay community and cosplay itself are stigmatized as a part of participatory culture or not.
An emergence of China as a new center of power causes hot debates about its possible positive and negative impacts on the system of international relations. In an attempt to explain the present and predict what is awaiting the world in the future, the humankind traditionally refers to the history. Meanwhile, in the age of new media and a rapid development of technologies this branch of knowledge inevitably undergoes changes, for example, the role played by public history is gradually increasing. For China, which focuses on soft power and the country image in the international arena, this aspect is very important, although for many centuries there is already a quite special, different from Western worldviews, relation to the history in the Chinese society. Obviously, there is a need to explore and subject to comprehensive analysis a number of features that characterize a process of a formation of Chinese historical narratives.
Provincial periodicals are widely used in regional studies. At the same time, collection of newspapers and their parts are often scattered in different museums, libraries and archives that hinders access of researchers to them and creates a completeness problem of the information source. Digital editions and information systems provide the solution of this problem as well as preservation of historical source.
The proposed article is based on the results of content analysis of informational TV programs of major Russian TV channels. Historical persons mentioned in these programs are considered in general context. Main conclusion is that some of the references are made in the context of fixing the characters move from the present to history. Other references are connected with the process of legitimization of current events by putting them into historical context.
This article analyses media representations of LGBT social movements, taking the case of Saint Petersburg LGBT pride parades. The analysis is developed through the use of framing theory, which views the media as an arena where interest groups promote their own interpretations of particular issues. Frames juxtapose elements of the text in such a way as to provide the audience with a scheme within which to perceive the message. Social movements are viewed as interest groups that introduce new frames in public debate. Two types of frames can be distinguished: collective action frames and status quo frames. In this study, the usage of two collective action frames (equality frame and victim frame), and two status quo frames (morality frame and propaganda promoting homosexuality frame) were examined. Additionally, the sources of quotes used in news stories were analyzed. The study focuses on articles dedicated to Saint Petersburg LGBT pride marches in the years 2010–2017 in the most popular local Internet websites. The analysis shows that the coverage of LGBT pride marches can be divided into two distinct periods: 2010–2013 and 2014–2017. In the first period, LGBT activists dominated the coverage, quoted about twice as much as government officials. Equality and victim frames were prevalent. In the second period, activists were cited significantly less often, with the propaganda promoting homosexuality frame dominating the discourse. However, contrary to findings of previous studies on social movement representation, across the whole period under consideration, LGBT activists were quoted more often than government representatives. This finding calls for a further exploration of the conditions which allowed for such coverage in the context of political heterosexism and homophobia.
The article substantiates the dualistic approach to media education – a combination of socio-humanitarian and technical-technological blocks. Despite the fact, that there is a stable understanding of media activities, based on the philological, historical, sociological, philosophical, cultural, political and psychological basis, that shapes the personal and professional worldview, analytical thinking, critical (verifying) position in the perception of social reality and objectification data, modern communication realities force specialists to master new information technologies – not only to receive, but also to distribute content on more advanced multimedia and media platforms. This approach is productive both in the training of future specialists in the field of media, and in the retraining of professionals, as well as in the implementation of the media education program in secondary and higher schools.
Of course, the above arguments can in many ways be of a debatable nature. However, most representatives of the academic community and the media industry themselves will certainly agree, that there is a need for changes in the traditional media education system today. In turn, the form and degree of these transformations should be the subject of collegial discussion.
This article combines Media Studies' and Fan Studies' approaches to such phenomenon as global manga spread, highlighing the role of participatory cultures and fan communities in the distribution, translation and interpretation of manga in Russia. The first part of the article is dedicated to participatory cultures as a concept and cultural reality in Russia, to differences between such notions as "otaku" (manga and anime fans), fan practices, fan cultures and participatory cultures. The article stresses the productive transformative potential of participatory cultures as cultural agents, their ability to cross national and cultural borders on their own terms and to influence the development of global phenomena within local contexts, even when national cultural industries, including the mass market, are not capable for some reasons to fulfil this task properly. The second part of the article is dedicated to the international reception of a controversial manga and anime title "Made in Abyss". This case demonstrates the ability of participatory cultures to become a space for open discussions of problematic questions, for production of knowledge and thinking about Japan as well as about local cultures.
The author teaches to awaken creativity in oneself, using emotions as a factor of motivation, explains the concept of critical thinking, gives the reader tools to add / edit publications to increase the clarity and rationality of their own judgments, and also shows where a particular theory is applicable