Проекты сохранения личной памяти: цифровые архивы и культура участия
This article discusses the phenomenon of Russian digital projects to preserve personal memories, which include “Oral History”, “European Memory about the GULAG”, the Obninsk digital project, PastVu, Relikva, etc. The goal of the research is to answer the question whether these projects are able to form public alternatives to official constructions of the past and ways in which that past is to be studied. The qualitative research is theoretically and methodologically based on notions of memory theory, public and digital history as well as media memory and digital network memory. Problems of participatory culture in digital historical projects are also studied. The authors put forward an analytical model based on uncovering the aims and themes of digital projects, the particulars of their funding, the role of professional historians and the participatory practices of the audience.
The features of two information systems devoted to the publications of archival documents on the history of Russian serving elite of XVII–XVIII centuries are studied for foresighting the typical problems in similar projects. The main tasks of net- 95 work publications of historical sources are the most correct transfer of the structure and text of the document, the development of electronic finding aids, and setting up computer systems navigation. The preparation of electronic edition of archival documents should have several basic phases, such as reasonable choice of the technology for electronic publication and published documents, the search for the best way of transliteration of the text, the researcher’s work with the originals of historical documents for correction of electronic text, and a description of documents. Application and experience of using the projects are listed and evaluated.
To date, Russian cosplay community has thousand members from all over the country, and the word "cosplay" is widely used in media. Despite its prominence, cosplay remains a fan practice or, using Henry Jenkins’ term, participatory practice. In participatory culture (or cultures) fans not only consume media content but actively interpret it and make their own. This article attempts to restore the history of Russian cosplay – its development and its perception. Using media publications from newspapers and magazines that are not directly related to mass culture, we gain a view from outside the community and analyze different context of the usage of the word "cosplay". In sum, we try to answer the question if russian cosplay community and cosplay itself are stigmatized as a part of participatory culture or not.
An emergence of China as a new center of power causes hot debates about its possible positive and negative impacts on the system of international relations. In an attempt to explain the present and predict what is awaiting the world in the future, the humankind traditionally refers to the history. Meanwhile, in the age of new media and a rapid development of technologies this branch of knowledge inevitably undergoes changes, for example, the role played by public history is gradually increasing. For China, which focuses on soft power and the country image in the international arena, this aspect is very important, although for many centuries there is already a quite special, different from Western worldviews, relation to the history in the Chinese society. Obviously, there is a need to explore and subject to comprehensive analysis a number of features that characterize a process of a formation of Chinese historical narratives.
The proposed article is based on the results of content analysis of informational TV programs of major Russian TV channels. Historical persons mentioned in these programs are considered in general context. Main conclusion is that some of the references are made in the context of fixing the characters move from the present to history. Other references are connected with the process of legitimization of current events by putting them into historical context.
The article addresses the understudied phenomenon of digital quantification of the body and everyday life, which has arisen due to the proliferation of wearable and mobile fitness technologies. The author reviews a number of recent studies which have contributed significantly to the conceptualisation of digital self-tracking. Examining various approaches and directions in the study of self-tracking, the author focuses on three aspects: a) on the manifestations and discourses of self-tracking; b) on its styles and practices; and c) on its social contexts and effects. The works under review show how trackers of physical and social activities can transform people’s everyday practices, and how users interact with fitness technologies, interpret quantified data and construct their own embodied identity. Importantly, the efficiency of self-tracking tools is associated with their ‘sociability’ and ‘intelligence’ — qualities achieved through the anthropomorphising of digital devices and the creation of a culture of sharing. The analysis also emphasises that the practice of self-tracking goes beyond individual experience, actively invading other social worlds, and may eventually become an inherent feature of a ‘sensor society’. Summarising the outcomes of current research, the author comes to the conclusion that further conceptualisation of digital self-tracking must take into account its complex and multi-vectored nature. On the one hand, self-tracking is productive, as it contributes to the broadening of possibilities for self-knowledge and self-management, but on the other hand, it can have disciplinary, discriminatory, coercive, and alienating effects.
Systems Thinking in Museums explores systems thinking and the practical implication of it using real-life museum examples to illuminate various entry points and stages of implementation and their challenges and opportunities. Its premise is that museums can be better off when they operate as open, dynamic, and learning systems as a whole as opposed to closed, stagnant, and status quo systems that are compartmentalized and hierarchical. This book also suggests ways to incorporate systems thinking based on reflective questions and steps with hopes to encourage museum professionals to employ systems thinking in their own museum. Few books explore theory in practice in meaningful and applicable ways; this book offers to unravel complex theories as applied in everyday practice through examples from national and international museums.