Decentralizing Dictatorship: Soviet Local Governance during World War II
Based on the new archival documentation, in this article, I investigate the process of localization (decentralization of authority towards local actors) in the USSR during World War II. Local authorities managed the economy of some regions as a unified complex. They re-allocated the workforce, equipment, and materials among enterprises that reported to different commissariats (economic and state ministries) and determined production plans. In so doing, local party authorities challenged departmental interests and violated the planned centralization standards. The localization of governance is interpreted in this article as the result of interactions between several related processes. On the one hand, after the terror of the 1930's, the composition of regional managers became increasingly stable. On the other hand, during the critical conditions of war the center restructured its relationships with the regions. The overall contraction in manufacturing and the breaking up of cooperation between enterprises forced the government to rely on the initiatives of lower level management, which then acquired significant authority. Under the influence of these factors, many practices of formal and informal localization spread at the regional level. The study and categorization of these practices, their reasons, and consequences is the goal of this article.
The book contains documents on structural changes, personnel, and key activities of the central apparatus of the Narkomat (People's Commissariat) for Finance of the USSR as well as its branches on the eve and during the Great Patriotic War. The documents cast new light on such issues as evacuation and re-evacuation of the Narkomfin (People's Commissariat for Finance), its staff activities in the wartime conditions, ways of solving complex personnel issues because of mass conscription of financial workers, restoration of financial work in areas liberated from the Nazi occupation. Particular documents reflect the Soviet financial practices of the realization of state revenue plans, tax collection, social support, and the work of the Goznak (Department of state papers production). The book ends with the decrees of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR on the mass awarding of employees of the financial bodies.
The article focuses on the features of the everyday life of children whose parents were victims of political repression. Chronological framework of the study is limited to the period of the Great Patriotic War (1941–1945). The study was mainly conducted on the materials of the Molotov region (Perm region nowadays). The objects of the study are the three most significant categories of “socially dangerous” children: those whose parents were convicted for political reasons, those who with their parents were deported to special settlements before and during the war, and mobilized to the labor army minors, belonged to peoples, recognized as “hostile to the USSR”. The authors discuss the features of the welfare of the social groups in question, in particular, providing them with food, clothing and other vital things. Special attention is paid to identifying local attitudes towards “outsiders”, that have received the state stigma of“enemy of the people”, “deportees”, etc. The authors present numerous facts of discrimination against children of “enemies of the people”. The authors also draw attention to features of the perception of those children in cities and the countryside where they lived. In particular, it is stated that their life in the countryside generally was quieter than in the city. Special attention is paid to the mental peculiarities of everyday life of children whose parents were suppressed in their civil rights. Unlike other categories of children, the children of “enemies of the people” were afraid not only of the war and that was connected with it. They were also afraid of losing loved ones because of the persecution of the authorities. A large number of memories associated with fear were caused by experiences during the arrest of relatives. Children “of enemies of the people” were afraid to be punished. Unlike other children, they felt that they may be punished not only for poor schoolwork or bad behavior. Punishment from the authorities frightened a lot more. This fear of punishment was formed by the atmosphere of terror. In addition, the authors draw attention to the impact of frightening pictures of war seen by the children on their perception of the world. Analyzing the everyday realities of the children of “enemies of the people” in wartime, the authors identify some specific features that distinguish them from the realities of other children’s life. The stigma of “enemy of the people” affects the education, communication with peers and adults. The life of these children was impregnated with the fear of punishment, since they were under constant control by the state. Problems in communication with peers and adults, frequent failure and preach provoked such children developing an inferiority complex. The children were faced with an artificially created image of an enemy, with the result that the stigma of “enemy of the people” divided their society into two groups: those who are not afraid to break through the officially established boundaries, and those who made the decision on self-preserving and protecting his family with least resistance to the state.
In the book documents on the design, adoption and execution of the annual state budgets of the USSR during the Great Patriotic War are published. The publication includes resolutions of the Sovnarkom (Council of People's Commissars) of the USSR on the approval of the budgets, materials on the coordination of budget items, expert assessments made by the Narkomat (People's Commissariat) for Finance, the Gosplan (State Planning Committee) and the Gosbank (State Bank) of the USSR on the budgets for each year of the war. A significant part of the book is occupied by documents characterizing methods of incomes mobilization and changes in a structure of revenues during the war period. The published documents contain important information on the amount of revenues and expenditures (including expenditures for military needs), on emission and stages of overcoming the budget deficit. The book ends with materials on the transition of the budgetary system to peacetime practices, which gradually began at the final stage of the war.
The third зфке is devoted to the events of the first and second periods of the Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945. It reveals political, economic and military-strategic conditions and prerequisites, which became a watershed event in a radical change in the war in favor of the Soviet Union and other countries of the anti-Hitler coalition. The main attention is paid to the decisive battles and battles that changed the course of the Great Patriotic War and the Second World War. The greatness of the heroism of the Soviet people, the dramatic events of 1941 and 1942 are shown. The activities of the Soviet and German political and military leadership, military art of confrontation are analyzed.
The article covers a staff and sources of its recruitment in special/checkup-filtration NKVD camps in the years of the Great Patriotic War. It gives data about conflicts between counter-intelligence services and camps administration for an employment of people from these camps. The author makes the assessment of an influence of the staff issue on the effectiveness of special checkup.
There are proved necessity of the agreements between state and local authorities institute further institutional development based on the analysis of the results of this Institute usage in the Donetsk region in 2008 - 2011.
The paper is dedicated to the main tendencies of the development of system of supreme power in the USSR during the Great Patriotic War due to a transformation of mechanics of decision-making and one-man dictatorship were transformed. The current published works on this subject aim to study formal structures of power, yet practices of the government and its qualitative characteristics have been insufficiently studied. This article analyzes the main archive funds that reflect activities of soviet leaders and changes in the supreme power system at various stages of the War. The study and comparison of these documental funds will determine research prospects in the field.