Демографические тормоза экономики
The article examines the features of the newest stage of the demographic evolution of Russia against the backdrop of other countries at similar stages of the demographic transition. It is shown that until recently, long-term demographic trends favored Russia's economic development, but now the country is entering a long period of unfavorable demographic changes for its economy. The cessation of the growth of the Russian population, the reduction in the working-age population and its aging, the increase in the dependency ratio will have a deterrent effect on the economic development and at the same time will make it more difficult to solve social problems. In particular, they will create greater problems for the pension system for people older than working age. The issue of using the migration resource to mitigate the negative consequences of demographic changes is being discussed.
This book is the attempt to consider the aging of population from point of view of demography, politics and sociology. The purpose of the book “Ageing Europe: Demography, Politics, Sociology” is to show that the aging of the population is an inevitable and objective process that will continue for a long time. This process requires a radical adaptation of society associated with the problem of the diversion of resources to support the elderly population, with the recognition of the special needs of the older people, with the formation of new relationships between the generations. That is why the aging of population is one of the main social problems of the 21st century and one of the main driving forces of social changes. It is a challenge that society has to accept.
Aging of population promotes society to use of unused human capital, to create the effective social policies and support services for older people. In contemporary society, the later period of life is a time for self-realization, new activities, new leisure, and new emotions. If society understands the needs of older people and provides opportunities for their realization, society can overcome the challenges caused by population aging
канд. экон. наук Е.М. Щеpбакова
С.А.Васин, д-р экон. наук А.Г. Вишневский
канд. экон. наук С.В. Захаров канд. экон. наук Е.И. Иванова канд. экон. наук В.И. Сакевич
д-р геогр. наук, академик РАЕН Б.Б. Пpохоpов
канд. физ.-мат. наук Е.М. Андреев д-р экон. наук А Г. Вишневский
канд. геогр. наук Ж.А. Зайончковская
д-р экон. наук А.Г. Вишневский канд. физ.-мат. наук Е. М. Андреев
д-р экон. наук А.Г. Вишневский
Basing on the data of migrant population surplus/decline in Russian cities for the period 1991-2009 the attempt is made to evaluate the impact of the population size of a city as well as the city position in the system of central-peripheral relations on its migration balance. The author also explains the existing migration mobility pattern through hierarchy of cities within a region.
The aging of Russian population leads to inefficiency of Pay-As-You-Go system, where the benefits come solely from government taxation of current workers' wages, and seems to be one of the problems of Russian Pension System. This is the overview of Russian demographic settings compared to other countries from US CIA ranking. Long-run instruments of influencing demography in Russia are stated below.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.
This article is talking about state management and cultural policy, their nature and content in term of the new tendency - development of postindustrial society. It mentioned here, that at the moment cultural policy is the base of regional political activity and that regions can get strong competitive advantage if they are able to implement cultural policy successfully. All these trends can produce elements of new economic development.