Использование универсальных зависимостей при грамматическом разборе многоязычного текста (на примере безличного предикатива)
The paper is dedicated to the initiative of universal dependences (UD), with aim to develop cross-linguistically consistent annotation scheme of grammatical analysis. The purpose of this initiative is in simplification of cross-language research, unification of interlanguage linguistic typology, building a foundation for the automated multilingual systems and the universal cross-language text parser.
In the first part of the paper we describe the main problems of grammatical analysis of the multilingual text, advantages of unification of language features, the purposes of the project of universal dependences. Also we give the brief history of creation of the project. On the example of three languages – Russian, English and German we discusses the basic principles of universal dependences, such as morphology and syntax features.
In the second part of the article on the example of predicative we illustrate how to conduct corpus researches using UD. The article defines the technique of automatic identification of predicatives and examines their frequency distribution in the Russian UD corpus and a semantic categorization of the most often used predicatives.
This book is a collection of articles dealing with various aspects of grammatical relations and argument structure in the languages of Europe and North and Central Asia (LENCA). Topics covered with respect to individual languages are: split-intransitivity (Basque), causativization (Agul), transitives and causatives (Korean and Japanese), aspectual domain and quantification (Finnish and Udmurt), head-marking principles (Athabaskan languages), and pragmatics (Eastern Khanty and Xibe). Typology of argument-structure properties of ‘give’ (LENCA), typology of agreement systems, asymmetry in argument structure, typology of the Amdo Sprachbund, spatial realtors (Northeastern Turkic), core argument patterns (languages of Northern California), and typology of grammatical relations (LENCA) are the topics of articles based on cross-linguistic data. The broad empirical sweep and the fine-tuned theoretical analysis highlight the central role of argument structure and grammatical relations with respect to a plethora of linguistic phenomena.
The present paper is a comparative corpus study of the verbal expression of emotional etiquette in American English and Russian. The study is conducted against the backdrop of certain assumptions regarding the cross-cultural centrality and marginality of emotions as formulated in the current research on cross-cultural pragmatics. The paper employs corpus-based methods to test the frequencies of the linguistic expression of different types of emotions in Russian and American English as encountered in diagnostic contexts of first-person reporting. Contrary to many currently-accepted theories, the present study demonstrates no absolute prevalence of positive or ethical over negative or non-ethical emotions in Russian or American English. It also disproves certain more specific claims (the predominance of ‘pity’ in Russian), while confirming others (prominence of ‘shame’ in Russian). Certain tendencies in emotional etiquette lean toward cross-cultural universality (e.g., ‘gratitude’ as the most frequently expressed emotion), while others differ. Overall, Russian speakers tend to report more passive negative emotions (‘fear’), while English speakers prefer reporting active negative emotions (‘anger’). Russian speakers are more “self-deprecating” than English speakers, as they favor expressing ‘shame’ over ‘pride’. At the same time, they show less empathy with the addressee, reporting more ‘contempt’-like and less ‘pity’-like emotions. The results obtained in this study can be useful for understanding and formulating culturally-specific pragmatic peculiarities and hence preferred conversational strategies in the two languages.
The choice of an appropriate referential expression (definite description, proper name or pronoun) depends on multiple factors. This paper focuses on how the possessor position of a referential expression and its antecedent affect referential choice. Other factors, such as syntactical role, form and definiteness of the antecedent, and animacy of the referent are considered. The study is based on a subcorpus of the specially designed RefRhet corpus.
The volume includes proceedings of the 23th Scandianvian Conference of Linguistics (SCL 23) that was held at Uppsala University 1–3 October 2008. It includes studies covering a wide spectrum of approaches to linguistics, for example, cross-linguistic typological studies, linguistic variation and language change in contact situations as well as studies relating to bilingualism and to second and foreign language learning.
In Standard Average European (SAE), addressees of speech verbs are marked with dative or, in languages lacking cases, with dative-like prepositions. This merger is commonly explained through a metaphor: the information transferred in a speech act is said to be construed as the object being transferred, or Theme, and the addressee as its Recipient. This status of the addressee as a derived concept, a metaphor of the Recipient, and its dative marking in many languages rather than in SAE alone, is the reason why the addressee is usually not considered to be a separate semantic role. Based on data from East Caucasian languages that use different marking for Recipients and addressees of speech, I argue that speech addressees constitute a separate semantic role, also an animate Goal, but not a metaphor of the Recipient. Focusing on case marking assigned by the main speech verb, speech acts are shown to be construed in East Caucasian as spatial configurations: the crucial component is their directedness towards the addressee. In the conclusion, I come back to SAE and question the status of the dative addressees. Taking into account that the dative often develops from lative markers, it is suggested that, in the languages with dative addressees, one should also consider an alternative to the conventional explanation: merging the Recipient and the addressee in one marking may result not from a metaphorical extension but from formal under-specification of two different animate Goals.
In my paper, two approaches to verb classification in Adyghe, a language of the West Caucasian family, are discussed. The first approach is a purely morphological classification based on the choice of person cross-referencing prefixes. The second one is a derivational classification which builds on the morphological mechanisms of reciprocalization and reflexivization. The main research question which lies behind the classification study is whether verbs derived by means of the reciprocal or reflexive marker behave in the course of further valency-changing operations differently from nonderived verbs.
I show that verb classification in Adyghe has some typologically peculiar properties, the main one being that the derivational classification distinguishes more specific classes than the purely morphological one. In other words, the fact that a verb is derived is crucial for its behavior. The language-specific properties of Adyghe are also typologically relevant. They show that derived verbs and derivational mechanisms are of particular relevance in verb classification and should be given more attention in linguistic work on verb classification than is currently done.
The paper is focused on the study of reaction of italian literature critics on the publication of the Boris Pasternak's novel "Doctor Jivago". The analysys of the book ""Doctor Jivago", Pasternak, 1958, Italy" (published in Russian language in "Reka vremen", 2012, in Moscow) is given. The papers of italian writers, critics and historians of literature, who reacted immediately upon the publication of the novel (A. Moravia, I. Calvino, F.Fortini, C. Cassola, C. Salinari ecc.) are studied and analised.
In the article the patterns of the realization of emotional utterances in dialogic and monologic speech are described. The author pays special attention to the characteristic features of the speech of a speaker feeling psychic tension and to the compositional-pragmatic peculiarities of dialogic and monologic text.