T. Reinhart (auth.), M. Everaert, M. Marelj, E. Reuland (eds.). Concepts, syntax and their interface: The Theta System. Cambridge (MA): MIT Press, 2016.
Aims and Scope
Earlier empirical studies on valency have looked at the phenomenon either in individual languages or a small range of languages, or have concerned themselves with only small subparts of valency (e.g. transitivity, ditransitive constructions), leaving a lacuna that the present volume aims to fill by considering a wide range of valency phenomena across 30 languages from different parts of the world. The individual-language studies, each written by a specialist or group of specialists on that language and covering both valency patterns and valency alternations, are based on a questionnaire (reproduced in the volume) and an on-line freely accessible database, thus guaranteeing comparability of cross-linguistic results. In addition, introductory chapters provide the background to the project and discuss its main characteristics and selected results, while a series of featured articles by leading scholars who helped shape the field provide an outside perspective on the volume’s approach. The volume is essential reading for anyone interested in valency and argument structure, irrespective of theoretical persuasion, and will serve as a model for future descriptive studies of valency in individual languages.
The paper discusses distributional restrictions on the realization of sentential complement as a čto-clause observed in non-agentive uses of verbs of speech act. It is shown that these restrictions apply only when the sentential complement is in the oblique position and that they are related to the argument structure of the predicate (the presence of attitude holder). I present the results of an experimental study using factorial design (familiar to experimental work on island effects), which provide evidence for the grammatical reality of the observed restrictions. Several approaches to the distribution of sentential complements in generative grammar are discussed. I show that the observed restrictions can be accounted for by an approach presupposing the (abstract) Case requirement of nominal as well as sentential complement coupled with a specific mechanism of Case-licensing of sentential complements in oblique positions. The paper sheds new light on the nature of the distribution of sentential complements as opposed to nominal complements.
This book is a collection of articles dealing with various aspects of grammatical relations and argument structure in the languages of Europe and North and Central Asia (LENCA). Topics covered with respect to individual languages are: split-intransitivity (Basque), causativization (Agul), transitives and causatives (Korean and Japanese), aspectual domain and quantification (Finnish and Udmurt), head-marking principles (Athabaskan languages), and pragmatics (Eastern Khanty and Xibe). Typology of argument-structure properties of ‘give’ (LENCA), typology of agreement systems, asymmetry in argument structure, typology of the Amdo Sprachbund, spatial realtors (Northeastern Turkic), core argument patterns (languages of Northern California), and typology of grammatical relations (LENCA) are the topics of articles based on cross-linguistic data. The broad empirical sweep and the fine-tuned theoretical analysis highlight the central role of argument structure and grammatical relations with respect to a plethora of linguistic phenomena.
In the paper, the phenomenon of recursion in morphology of Adyghe, a polysynthetic language of Caucaus is considered. We argue that recursion may be allowed to different extents in different parts of the word and be highly constrained exactly in contexts that are considered prototypical for recursion. Hence this property is not as natural as for syntax.
Causative derivation is the least recursable, concrete applicative derivation is the most, and general oblique applicatives and propositional operators occupy an intermediate place. These results are remarkable because they contrast with our intuitions about syntactic recursion.
Verb production has been shown to be impaired in individuals with agrammatic Broca’s aphasia. Several theories linked this deficit to problems with the implementation of grammatical information the verb contains. In particular, the number and the type of arguments associated with a verb were suggested as causes of production difficulties in agrammatic speakers. The influence of these two factors on agrammatic production has earlier been investigated in English and Dutch (Thompson, 2003; Bastiaanse & Van Zonneveld, 2005).
The volume includes papers devoted to valency change operations in various languages.
In the review I discuss articles, which are included in the volume about grammatical relations and their coding in Baltic languages, edited by Axel Holvoet and Nicole Nau, The volume includes Lithuanian, Latvian and Livonian data, which is analyzed both in formal and functional framework. The problems under analysis include differential object and subject marking, semantic motivation of valency patterns, the role of negation in the syntactic behavior of the verb and other interesting issues.
The paper is focused on the study of reaction of italian literature critics on the publication of the Boris Pasternak's novel "Doctor Jivago". The analysys of the book ""Doctor Jivago", Pasternak, 1958, Italy" (published in Russian language in "Reka vremen", 2012, in Moscow) is given. The papers of italian writers, critics and historians of literature, who reacted immediately upon the publication of the novel (A. Moravia, I. Calvino, F.Fortini, C. Cassola, C. Salinari ecc.) are studied and analised.
In the article the patterns of the realization of emotional utterances in dialogic and monologic speech are described. The author pays special attention to the characteristic features of the speech of a speaker feeling psychic tension and to the compositional-pragmatic peculiarities of dialogic and monologic text.