Архаические экономические институты: «распределённые мануфактуры» в малых городах России
The authors have first discovered and described a new economic phenomenon: "dispersed (distributed, scattered) manufactories". In some towns of provincial Russia, residents carry out cooperative economic behavior, which is realized in form and substance similar to the pre-industrial manufacturing in Europe and Russia in the XIV-XVIII centuries. In contrast to the widespread distributed manufacturing, where information technologies are widely used, "scattered manufactories" emerged in small towns and rural areas, there is a post-archaic economic institution. There is a reproduction of all attributes of the dispersed manufactory of the XIVth-XVIIIth centuries, including the corresponding production relations and forms of “artel” and guild labor organization. In such "dispersed manufactories" a significant part of the able-bodied population in small towns and in the rural area is involved. Distributed business processes in the manufacture and sale of goatskin kerchiefs (downy manufactory of Uryupinsk and Novokhopersk), fur products (Labinsk fur manufactory), leather footwear (Kimr shoemaking), ornaments from Rostov enamel (Rostov the Great) have been described. It is assumed that there are the same patterns of economic behavior of the population and in many other local societies. The revealed ways of economic and economic behavior of the provincial population are mainly in the informal and shadow segment of the economy. They are not officially recorded. The reasons for the emergence of "scattered manufactories" are the economic crisis of the 1990s, the underdevelopment of local labor markets, the widespread use of the informal and shadow economy in Russia. In addition, an important factor can be the excessive regulatory impact of the state on small businesses. Institutional factors that determine the development of economic practices in the form of a "dispersed manufactory" in local provincial communities are (1) the local territory’s resource uniqueness and / or (2) the uniqueness of local crafts.