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  • Екатеринбург, Томск, далее везде: какая она, российская история «городской повседневности», и зачем она нужна?

Article

Екатеринбург, Томск, далее везде: какая она, российская история «городской повседневности», и зачем она нужна?

The article is devoted to the formation of everyday life history as a separate direction of modern historical science with its theoretical concepts. Its formation can be attributed to the last quarter of 18th century. The historian Jesuit P.-J.-B. Legrand d'Aussy was one of its first authors. The dynamics of development and methods of various "stories of daily occurrence" are considered in the paper. “L'histoire de la vie quotidenne” of Annales` school is focused on identification of mentality by means of everyday life features analysis of. German “Alltagsgeschichte” is actively using the microhistorical analysis. One of its major purpose is the verification and updating of the accepted historical concepts. “Alltagskulturgeschichte” is based on the theory of "lifestyles" as behavior archetypes in correlation with era conditions, social accessory and so forth.. In our country life and customs as every day repeating social practicians began to be studied since the 40-ies of the 19th century. Soviet everyday life history continued study life conditions, was very ideological. This historiographical direction quickly grew in the post-soviet history, taking various elements of foreign theories of the every day life history. A number of news directions in everyday life history with its own subjects of research arose (“revolutionary daily occurrence”, “working daily occurrence”, “gender daily occurrence” etc.). Russian history of city everyday life is in the focus of the article author. Specific features of this scientific sector, its problem areas, purposes, structure and an object of a research are explored. The comparative analysis of two historiographically significant works, published in Ekaterinburg (authors - Vladimir Mikityuk and Olga Yakhno) and Tomsk (Anisa Zheravina), is carried out for this purpose. The analysis demonstrated that the structure of city everyday life is due to citizens interests. These interests, in turn, were determined by those aspects of public life which provided their standards of living: city economics, infrastructure and as well as social one too (transport, post, education, medicine etc.), leisure and entertainment, criminality. The development of these aspects is also represented by historians as manifestation of the society modernization and its quintessence - the city. Research approaches of compared authors combine theoretical provisions of the Russian methodologists, first of all Natalia Pushkareva, and microhistory elements in the spirit of German Alltagsgeschichte. The source basis of city everyday life history is composed from press materials – headline news, statistics, journalism and commercial advertisements.