Problems of the Russian economy are under consideration.
This paper examines how export and export destination stimulates innovation by Russian manufacturing firms. The discussion is guided by the theoretical models for heterogeneous firms engaged in international trade which predict that, because more productive firms generate higher profit gains, they are able to afford high entry costs, and trade liberalization encourages the use of more progressive technologies and brings higher returns from R&D investments. We will test the theory using a panel of Russian manufacturing firms surveyed in 2004 and 2009, and use export entry and export destinations to identify the causal effects on various direct measures of technologies, skill and management innovations. We find evidence on exporters’ higher R&D financing, better management and technological upgrades. Exporters, most noticeably long-time and continuous exporters, are more active in monitoring their competitors, both domestically and internationally, and more frequently employ highly qualified managers. Exporters are more active in IT implementation. When it comes to export destination, we find that non-CIS exporters are more prone to learning. However, we cannot identify that government or foreign ownership shows any impact on learning-by-exporting effects.
This article studies the relationship between exporting and past productivity at the firm level. Panel data from two surveys of Russian manufacturing firms conducted in 2005 and 2009 are used. We analyse the difference between continuing and new exporters, and study how drivers to exporting differ if firms export to CIS or high-wage advanced countries. We find empirical evidence for the self-selection hypothesis: both continuing and new exporters are more productive and larger than non-exporters and export quitters. Path dependence in the nature of foreign trade ceased to exist: serving the markets of the former Soviet Union requires the same productivity advantage as exporting to the developed countries.
The article is devoted to the analysis of trends in international trade development in Russia in the period following trade liberalization. Using statistical data analysis changes in scale and the structure of international trade since the first years of economic reforms in Russia are estimated.
This paper empirically investigates the effects of vertical export diversification on economic growth in Russian regions. First, we explore differences in vertical export diversification across Russian regions and analyze whether the relationship between intra-industry vertical export diversification and economic growth takes place at the regional level in 2003-2009. Using OLS and GMM estimators and controlling for a quality differences when calculating productivity level of export goods, we show that initial specializing in low-quality goods (with implied low- productivity level) leads to higher subsequent economic growth. The possible explanation is that, regions with low-quality goods in their export basket are able to improve productivity in relatively shorter terms (comparing with the situation of export discovery) and as the result grow faster. However, as it was shown, these effects of initial specialization in low-quality products on faster economic growth do matter only for regions, which are far from technology frontier.