Роль и функции экспертов в процессе принятия властных решений
Paper is devoted to analysis of functions of expert knowledge during of decision-making process and of the regimes ‘expert-power’. We propose to stress two main functions of expert knowledge – instrumental, when governmental officials really interested of expert’s opinion for concrete problems, and symbolic, when experts must legitimize some decisions adopted previously. Paper based at the preliminary results of research, which includes near to ten expert interview in Moscow and St. Petersburg. According to preliminary conclusion of research the relationship between functions of expert knowledge changes during process of decision making: instrumental function used at the stages of problem’s identification and discussions of possible ways of its decision more frequently. Symbolic function used frequently with the purpose of public opinion creation, supporting of adopted decisions.
Introduction of School Composition: Technology of Mobilization of Potential of Public Discussion by Means of Crowdsourcing. Technologies of involvement of citizens to discussion of socially significant questions in the course of preparation of administrative decisions are presented to an education of systems in article.
Analysis of factors of the best position of Public Council for small business development in the list of other governor's councils are realised
Public Chamber of Chelyabinskaya oblast in situation of regional inter-elite conflict.
The objective of paper is analysis of the role and place of Public Chamber of Chelyabinskaya oblast in the situation of inter-elite conflict in this region. It was a conflict between the team of governor Michael Yurevich, from one side, and coalition of persons from police and other ‘power’ structures with the part of industrial elite of region with non-formal leader chair of regional court Theodor Yiatkin, from other side. The positions of four groups of respondents – from government structures, from NGOs, from Muss-Media, and from academic community – concerning the participation of Public Chamber and it’s chair in regional inter-elite conflict are analyzed by means of materials of sixteen experts interview and focus-group.
Abstract. In the article the history and features of the Russian political science community’s formation are analyzed. Apart from the milestones, the authors consider the main versions of the community’s emergence, as well as the phenomenon of community itself. In the course of the research the authors used various methods and sources: content analysis of information resources and documents of the professional organizations of political scientists of the Russian Federation, surveys and interviews of experts-political scientists and public servants. All this allowed not only to characterize the political science community by its features description, but also to reveal the existing development problems, considering regional political science schools’ development and functioning dynamics, as well as the role of political science community as an expert community in the state policy-making. The wide range of experts having taken part in surveys helped to describe the situation from various sides and to show a picture both from political scientists’ position and from high-ranked decision-makers’ viewpoint. In the conclusion of the article authors form conceptual conclusions which can be used by the professional organizations of the Russian community of political scientists to increase efficiency of their activity, develop regional political schools in the Russian Federation, and also produce constructive dialogue between the authorities and expert communities to improve quality of the decisions made and provide academia’s involvement in the research field. Authors emphasize that the present article is not exhaustive, and express their hope that other researchers will join the discussion on the role of political scientists’ professional community, which will considerably increase the quality of the research.
The collective monograph contributes to theoretical understanding of the mutual influences and reconfigurations of scientific and lay knowledge about society. This book summarizes the results of theoretical, historical and sociological studies of varying conceptualizations of social knowledge in different disciplinary fields of social sciences, carried out on the basis of an analysis of a representative corpus of classical and contemporary works. The contributors to this volume make use of conceptual tools of the sociology of knowledge, theoretical sociology, as well as modern methodological approaches of cognitive social science in order to attain generalizations about inner mechanisms of reciprocal influences of ordinary social knowledge and social sciences and to make first steps toward closing the lacunae in our understanding of the processes of reflective reconfiguration of scientific and common-sense knowledge about society. These processes are illustrated with examples taken from a broad range of disciplinary areas: sociology of science and social studies of professions, social ecology and bioethics, social epistemology,modern social theory and conceptions of “folk sociology”. The book is supposed to be useful to readers in many different fields of social sciences and humanities, including those studying sociology at advanced level. It also will make an immediate appeal to the general reader familiar with contemporary social theory.
There is a sharp contradiction between public policies to support SMEs and features of Russian national SMEs. Using western experience in Russia, doing some bright projects to stimulate small businesses was important twenty years ago. Quantitative and qualitative parameters of SMEs in Russia lag behind most countries, largely due to the structure of its economy with the traditional dominance of large enterprises
and the prevailing business climate. Small and medium-sized business in Russia is not innovative, does not perform antitrust function and does not create many
jobs. Small and medium-sized business generates a positive competitive environment. But the importance of SMEs in Russia should not be exaggerated. The scale of subcontracting and franchising with independent small businesses in our country is extremely small. It happened so that the Russian economic policy and the leading part of the national political establishment were in a subordinate position in relation to the interests of a narrow circle of large businesses, mainly engaged in production and export of the most important natural resources. Manufacturing, infrastructural and other facilities of big business, its supply and marketing relations and, most importantly, its long-term economic interests focus on large enterprises and, with few exceptions, show no interest for the SMEs sector. The situation is exacerbated by the fact that the Russian system of economic institutions encourages big business mostly. It also proves an essential specific situation of small and medium-sized businesses in Russia. The development of Russian small and medium-sized business entirely depends on the state of the economy and the business climate in the country. The business climate in Russia does not correspond to the needs of small and medium-sized businesses. Measures to improve the business climate can potentially help Russian small and medium-sized businesses much more than the existing costly system meant to support them. It is obvious that the whole Russian system for SMEs support, fold increase in the federal budget to support Russian SMEs occurred in the recent years, is unable to compensate for a generally unfavorable business environment in Russia. It is necessary to improve the quality of investment, business climate and institutions in Russia. The real growth of the Russian SMEs can be expected only with the modernization, new industrialization of the Russian economy and business climate improvements.
Conference proceeding SGEM 2014
The book of professor of National research University Higher School of Economics A.Yu. Sungurov devoted to the process of expert influence on the policy decision process. The different kinds of expertise and models of expert community and government interaction are analysed in the first chapter of book. The Russian and international scienific discussions on this topics analysed in the forst chapter also. The results of our research of practics of experts and government interactions into process of policy policy decisions in Russia at federal and regional levels are presented in the second chapter of book. The problems of normative expertise and expert accompaniment of policy decisions are analysed also.
The article deals with the processes of building the information society and security in the CIS in accordance with modern conditions. The main objective is to review existing mechanisms for the formation of a common information space in the Eurasian region, regarded as one of the essential aspects of international integration. The theoretical significance of the work is to determine the main controls of the regional information infrastructure, improved by the development of communication features in a rapid process.The practical component consists in determining the future policies of the region under consideration in building the information society. The study authors used historical-descriptive approach and factual analysis of events having to do with drawing the contours of today's global information society in the regional refraction.
The main result is the fact that the development of information and communication technologies, and network resources leads to increased threats of destabilization of the socio-political situation in view of the emergence of multiple centers that generate the ideological and psychological background. Keeping focused information policy can not be conceived without the collective participation of States in the first place, members of the group leaders of integration - Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan. Currently, only produced a comprehensive approach to security in the information field in the Eurasian region, but the events in the world, largely thanks to modern technology, make the search for an exit strategy with a much higher speed. The article contributes to the science of international relations, engaging in interdisciplinary thinking that is associated with a transition period in the development of society. A study of current conditions in their relation to the current socio-political patterns of the authors leads to conclusions about the need for cooperation with the network centers of power in the modern information environment, the formation of alternative models of networking, especially in innovation and scientific and technical areas of information policy, and expanding the integration of the field in this region on the information content.
This special publication for the 2012 New Delhi Summit is a collection of articles by government officials from BRICS countries, representatives of international organizations, businessmen and leading researchers.
The list of Russian contributors includes Sergei Lavrov, Foreign Minister of Russia, Maxim Medvedkov, Director of the Trade Negotiations Department of the Russian Ministry of Economic Development, Vladimir Dmitriev, Vnesheconombank Chairman, Alexander Bedritsky, advisor to the Russian President, VadimLukov, Ambassador-at-large of the Russian Foreign Affairs Ministry, and representatives of the academic community.
The publication also features articles by the President of Kazakhstan NursultanNazarbayev and internationally respected economist Jim O’Neil, who coined the term “BRIC”. In his article Jim O’Neil speculates about the future of the BRICS countries and the institution as a whole.
The publication addresses important issues of the global agenda, the priorities of BRICS and the Indian Presidency, the policies and competitive advantages of the participants, as well as BRICS institutionalization, enhancing efficiency and accountability of the forum.