Marital satisfaction of employed and non-employed women in Russia at different marriage stages
The paper presents the results of the empirical study aimed at investigating of gender differences in marital satisfaction in families expecting their first child in connection with the structural characteristics of family systems. It is shown that the main risk factors for spouses’ relations and their marital satisfaction at this stage are an increase in the emotional distance between spouses, generated by the women’s focus on themselves, by their diversion from the issues of interaction with their family external environment, by delegation all decisions in this area to men. Men in this period are less satisfied with their marriage than women. Women do not so much experience a high level of satisfaction with emotional relationships, but tend to rationally assess their family life as satisfying; in this period women have fewer expectations for the spouses’ relationships characteristics.
The results of the empirical study of the life and family values of spouses in monocultural, interethnic and inter-confessional are presented. It is revealed that different religions of spouses create additional difficulties for interaction in a pair, which are connected not so much with life values, but mostly - with family attitudes. The existence of a common religion in the interethnic couple contributes to greater satisfaction with marriage and greater coherence of the spouses' perceptions about their relationship.
The empirical study of the relationship of psychological separation from the parents with life satisfaction was performed with the participation of 375 middle-aged women with different marital status. It is proved that women who are married, more positively perceive themselves and their lives, their separation from parents is experienced by them as less conflict. Harmonious separation from parents is directly related to marital satisfaction. A woman’s separation from parents is differently related to her life satisfaction depending on her marital status. The most harmonious separation from parents is observed at women in remarriages.
The empirical research is devoted to the problem of psychological well-being of middle-aged women with different marital statuses. The sample of the study consisted of 365 women aged from 35 to 56 years old, among whom there were women who were married (for the first, second or third time), divorced and never married. Methods were used: «The scale of psychological well-being» (K. Riff) in the adaptation of Shevelenkova, Fesenko; “Psychological Separation Questionnaire” (J. Hoffman) in the adaptation of. Dzukayeva and Sadovnikova, “Satisfaction Survey of Marriage” (Stolin, Romanova and Butenko).
The study showed that the marital status of middle-aged women, regardless of the quality of the relationship, is related to their psychological well-being. Married women are more satisfied with their lives than never married, and those who are divorced are intermediate in terms of psychological well-being. In the third marriage, the psychological well-being of women is significantly higher than in the first two. Women who have never been married are less separated from their parents than those who are married. In general, with the accumulation of different experiences of marital relations by a woman, various aspects of her relationship with her parents are better restructured. Psychological well-being of middle-aged women is more related to satisfaction with marriage in the first and second marriages, in the third marriage only personal autonomy of the woman is associated with marital satisfaction. The nature of the relationship of psychological well-being with separation is different in women with different marital status. Most strongly, this relationship is expressed at women in a second marriage, somewhat less so at divorced and those who have never been married. The role of separation from father and mother is different for women with different marital status.
The paper presents the results of the empirical study, which has been conducted with the aim to analyze the differences in life and family values and their interactions between the spouses from cross-cultural and monocultural couples. The sample of the study consists of 330 persons, including 85 cross-cultural Arab — Russian couples (170 persons), living in Russia, and 80 monocultural couples (160 persons).The main methods were S. Schwartz’ “Value Survey”, “Test of Attitudes to Family Life” by Yu. Alyoshina, L. Gozman, & E. Dubovskaya, «Marital Role Expectations and Aspirations” by A.N. Volkova, “Marital Satisfaction Test” by V. Stolin, T. Romanova, & G. Butenko.It was revealed that the persons from cross-cultural and monocultural marriages have different life and family values hierarchies, besides, they realize their life values in family life differently. In cross-cultural marriages the spouses see the opportunities for their normative life goals realizing in the family, especially in its psychotherapeutic and parental spheres, as well as in social activity outside the family. But in their real day-to-day activities, they do not always manage to realize their life goals in the family sphere, probably because of the difficulties in interacting with their social environment, which can come from the fact that their families are more enclosed, which in turn leads to a decrease of marital satisfaction. In the cross-cultural spouses’ representations, the collectivist values are more related to family functioning, but individualistic values such as hedonism and power are perceived as incompatible with the successful functioning of the family.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.