This study aims to investigate the relationship between social dominance orientation (SDO) and subjective well-being among Chinese adolescents (N = 4246), and to examine the mediating role of prosocial behaviour in this relationship. The structural equation model’s results showed that SDO was negatively associated with prosocial behaviour and subjective well-being, that prosocial behaviour was positively associated with subjective well-being, and also that (low) prosocial behaviour partially mediated the negative relationship between SDO and subjective well-being. Multi-group analyses showed that the mediation model was generally similar between boys and girls, but that the negative relationship between SDO and prosocial behaviour was somewhat stronger among girls than boys. This study sheds light on how SDO is associated with positive outcomes among Chinese adolescents and highlights the mediating role of prosocial behaviour as an underlying mechanism between SDO and subjective well-being. Future studies are needed to further discover the role of culture values in the association between SDO and subjective well-being
A modificated version of experimental scheme "double step" was used to study the decision- making process in saccade programming. Two short visual stimuli were presented sequentially in opposite hemifields (scheme pulse overshoot). The “pattern” of response (double saccade or single saccade at the second target) and latency of the first saccade depended on the duration of the first stimulus (150 or 50 ms). Positive ERP components were revealed within the interval 100 - 120 ms before the saccade onset by using the method of selective EEG averaging. These potentials can be considered as markers of the decision-making process. The parameters and topography of these components indicate involvement of the frontal-parietal neural network of saccadic control and frontal-parietal-and medial-thalamic activation systems of selective attention at the stage of decision-making process.
Variations in acquiescence and extremity pose substantial threats to the validity of cross-cultural research that relies on survey methods. Individual and cultural correlates of response styles when using 2 contrasting types of response mode were investigated, drawing on data from 55 cultural groups across 33 nations. Using 7 dimensions of self-other relatedness that have often been confounded within the broader distinction between independence and interdependence, our analysis yields more specific understandings of both individual- and culture-level variations in response style. When using a Likert-scale response format, acquiescence is strongest among individuals seeing themselves as similar to others, and where cultural models of selfhood favour harmony, similarity with others and receptiveness to influence. However, when using Schwartz’s (2007) portrait-comparison response procedure, acquiescence is strongest among individuals seeing themselves as self-reliant but also connected to others, and where cultural models of selfhood favour self-reliance and self-consistency. Extreme responding varies less between the two types of response modes, and is most prevalent among individuals seeing themselves as self-reliant, and in cultures favouring self-reliance. As both types of response mode elicit distinctive
Few studies have examined to what extent commonly held stereotypes reflect real intergroup differences in motivational goals. Taking a values perspective (Schwartz et al., 2012), the study examines value preferences among Jews and Russians in Russia, to assess the extent to which commonly held stereotypes reflect values of group members. Results showed that Jews reported substantially higher levels of universalism‐tolerance, benevolence (both caring and dependability), and tradition values, and lower levels of power (both dominance and resources), and universalism‐nature values, than Russians. Results indicated that the widespread Jewish stereotypes of power, achievement, and rootlessness/cosmopolitanism are ungrounded, while the stereotypes of liberalism and particularism are upheld by the reported differences in the value preferences between Jews and the majority population in Russia. The present study underscores the importance of value comparisons between ethnic minority and majority groups for understanding their motivational goals and thus fighting prejudices and discrimination.
Few studies examine intercultural relations in emerging adulthood. Framed from the perspective of the Mutual Intercultural Relations in Plural Societies (MIRIPS) project, the current paper examined the mediating role of tolerance and perceived consequences of immigration in the relationship between multicultural ideology and attitudes towards immigrants. Additionally, the moderating role of context was analysed. A two-group structural equation modelling was performed on data collected from 305 Italian emerging adults living both in northern and in southern Italy with different socio-political climates towards immigrants. In both groups, tolerance and perceived consequences of immigration mediated the relationship between multicultural ideology and attitudes towards immigrants. Also, this indirect relationship was significantly higher for the northern than southern Italians. These findings provide provisional evidence of mediating and moderating processes in the relationship between multicultural ideology and attitudes towards immigrants and suggest important implications for practitioners interested in promoting intercultural relations among emerging adults.
To study different aspects of facial emotion recognition, valid methods are needed. The more widespread methods have some limitations. We propose a more ecological method that consists of presenting dynamic faces and measuring verbal reaction times. We presented 120 video clips depicting a gradual change from a neutral expression to a basic emotion (anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness and surprise), and recorded hit rates and reaction times of verbal labelling of emotions. Our results showed that verbal responses to six basic emotions differed in hit rates and reaction times: happiness > surprise > disgust > anger > sadness > fear (this means these emotional responses were more accurate and faster). Generally, our data are in accordance with previous findings, but our differentiation of responses is better than the data from previous experiments on six basic emotions.
As the discourse around societal cohesion grows and policy makers increasingly turn their attention towards improving cohesion, understanding its role for the lives of individuals becomes ever more important. Our study examines whether the social cohesion of the immediate living context is related to the strength of Big Five personality traits among individuals. Using data from a community survey of 6252 adults living in 30 rural sub-districts in the Kyrgyz Republic, where social cohesion is a sizable policy concern, we conduct a multilevel analysis of the relationship between sub-district cohesion and individual personality. Results indicate that higher levels of cohesion are significantly related to higher individual levels of agreeableness, conscientiousness and openness. However, no relationship is found with extraversion or neuroticism. Thus, where a social entity has higher cohesion, this entity will also have inhabitants with a greater prosocial and communal orientation towards others, greater conscientiousness and more openness to experience. These findings imply that social cohesion may be one geographical social indicator related to variation in personality traits. Moreover, the findings suggest that understanding social cohesion requires both macro- and micro-perspectives and that its connection to these particular personality traits should be taken into consideration.
Our study examined the effects of mortality salience (MS) on attitudes toward state control in different domains in Russia. Using the theory of Conservatism as Motivated Social Cognition (CMSC) and the Terror Management Theory (TMT), we put forward two alternative hypotheses. Based on the CMSC, MS would enhance the approval of state control in different spheres, while, in line with TMT, the MS effect would be dependent on pre‐existing views. The participants in the study were 450 Russian students who completed a questionnaire to measure attitudes toward state control in six spheres of life (the economy, the mass media, political parties, social organisations, science and education). After a week, they were randomly assigned one of three conditions—MS, frightening, and a neutral condition—and again completed the questionnaire on political attitudes. Our results showed that MS mostly provokes “control shifting,” confirming the CMSC's hypothesis. However, a separate analysis conducted among people with different pre‐existing political attitudes has revealed that “control shifting” is more pronounced for freedom‐oriented participants. We discuss these findings in line with alternative views on the nature of the MS effect and specifics of socio‐political context.
In recent years the usability became a central issue for program interfaces design. The effects of functional state in usability testing were examined in an experiment. 26 male students of technical specialties (M=21 years) operated two users interfaces (hierarchical menus). In addition to various performance measures (e.g. task completion time, task completion rate), several psychophysiological measures were taken (e.g. electrocardiogram, galvanic skin response, electroencephalogram). The regression analysis showed the importance of the functional state dynamic for the construction of the model (R2=0,667, p<0,001) considering two significant determinants of users subjective system usability evaluation - eeg alpha rhythm power and heart rate variability. Furthermore our finding revealed that functional state dynamic indirectly influence on usability through interface satisfaction. Differences in psychophysiological parameters point to the need to consider more strongly the factor functional state in usability research and practice.
Research suggests a positive relationship between youth temperament traits and behavior problems. We studied the relationship between temperament and behavior and emotional problems on a Russian-speaking sample (n=203, age 15–17). We used the Russian versions of Rothbarts ATQ (Adult Temperament Questionnaire) and Achenbach's YSR (Youth Self Report) to assess temperament and behavioral problems respectively. The Fear and Discomfort temperament dimension correlated positively with internalizing problems. Sadness was linked to all behavior problems except delinquent behavior. It was still related with the overall externalizing dimension although through aggressive behavior problems only. Frustration correlated positively with all problem scales. Positive affect was negatively related to the Withdrawn scale and positively related to Agression. We show that high emotionality is related to behavior problems in the Russian sample. Overall our results conform to international research, although we found a few peculiarities in the Russian sample.