Суфийская метафизика любви в трактате Рузбихана Бакли «Жасмин влюбленных»
The article deals with the description of the process of love’s genesis in Persian Sufi literature. The author takes an excerpt from the “Jasmine of Lovers” of Ruzbihan Baqli Shirazi (1129–1208), an early Sufi treatise entirely concentrated on Divine and human love, as an example. The article also includes an annotated translation of the treatise’s fourth chapter from Persian.
The article comprises an analysis of the famous ghazal by the 14th cent. Iranian poet Shams al-Din Hafiz. Traditionally it has been considered as a response to a poem by his late contemporary Shah Ni‘matullah Vali. This poetic dialogue is rather remarkable since it reveals both the literary and the personal polemics. The juxtaposing of the two texts opens in their research further hermeneutic perspectives. The ideal images of the ghazals’ lyrical characters can be projected onto the personalities of the two poets and their relationships, which provides the poem by Hafiz with a new semantic dimension.
The article deals with the “Remembrance of Jaʻfar Sadiq”, opening chapter of the largest Persian hagiographic compendium "Remembrances of God’s friends” of Farid al-din ʻAttar (d. 1221). Apologetic aspects of this remembrance in the context of the earlier Sufi hagiographic tradition are primarily considered. In addition, the motives, partly revealing the author’s conception of this book, have been found.
The renowned Sufi martyr Husayn Mansur Hallaj had a profound influence on the subsequent Sufi tradition. Despite the persecution of his followers organized by the authorities, which began immediately after his execution, Hallaj’s teachings widespread to all the parts of the Caliphate. The city of Shiraz was one of the centers where the Sufi martyr’s followers had fled. Hallaj’s apology is one if the central themes in the works of Ruzbihan Baqli, a Sufi, who had an enormous influence on the Persian Sufi tradition. In turn, the term iltibās, which is mentioned in Hallaj’s works, plays one of the most important roles in Ruzbihan’s heritage. But despite the importance of this concept, it is almost entirely left out of view of researchers. There are large differences even in the issue of this term’s translation (“equivocacy”, “amphibolie”, “clothing with Divinity”). It is also interesting that this concept has actually become “exclusive” for Ruzbihan. This paper also presents examples of using the term iltibās as in Hallaj’s Kitāb al-Tāwasīn, and in the works of Ruzbihan Baqli, both Arabic and Persian. In addition, the hypothesis for translation and interpretation of this term, which were proposed by the scholars (L. Massignon, H. Corbin, C.W. Ernst) will be examined.
The article includes a Russian translation of the chapter devoted to Ahmad ibn Hanbal from Farid al-Din ʻAṭṭār’s Memorial of God’s Friends. Ahmad ibn Hanbal (780–855), celebrated Muslim theologian, jurist and traditionist, is a founder and eponym of Hanbali school. In this hagiography ʻAṭṭār presents him as an active proponent of the dogma of the eternal essence of the Quran — Ahmad ibn Hanbal preferred tortures and martyrdom rather than rejecting his beliefs.
The article considers the Views of L. N. Tolstoy not only as a representative, but also as a accomplisher of the Enlightenment. A comparison of his philosophy with the ideas of Spinoza and Diderot made it possible to clarify some aspects of the transition to the unique Tolstoy’s religious and philosophical doctrine. The comparison of General and specific features of the three philosophers was subjected to a special analysis. Special attention is paid to the way of thinking, the relation to science and the specifics of the worldview by Tolstoy and Diderot. An important aspect is researched the contradiction between the way of thinking and the way of life of the three philosophers.
Tolstoy's transition from rational perception of life to its religious and existential bases is shown. Tolstoy gradually moves away from the idea of a natural man to the idea of a man, who living the commandments of Christ. Starting from the educational worldview, Tolstoy ended by creation of religious and philosophical doctrine, which were relevant for the 20th century.
This important new book offers the first full-length interpretation of the thought of Martin Heidegger with respect to irony. In a radical reading of Heidegger's major works (from Being and Time through the ‘Rector's Address' and the ‘Letter on Humanism' to ‘The Origin of the Work of Art' and the Spiegel interview), Andrew Haas does not claim that Heidegger is simply being ironic. Rather he argues that Heidegger's writings make such an interpretation possible - perhaps even necessary.
Heidegger begins Being and Time with a quote from Plato, a thinker famous for his insistence upon Socratic irony. The Irony of Heidegger takes seriously the apparently curious decision to introduce the threat of irony even as philosophy begins in earnest to raise the question of the meaning of being. Through a detailed and thorough reading of Heidegger's major texts and the fundamental questions they raise, Haas reveals that one of the most important philosophers of the 20th century can be read with as much irony as earnestness. The Irony of Heidegger attempts to show that the essence of this irony lies in uncertainty, and that the entire project of onto-heno-chrono-phenomenology, therefore needs to be called into question.
The article is concerned with the notions of technology in essays of Ernst and Friedrich Georg Jünger. The special problem of the connection between technology and freedom is discussed in the broader context of the criticism of culture and technocracy discussion in the German intellectual history of the first half of the 20th century.