Should the loyal citizen obey unlawful laws? What is the relationship between positive law and justice in the context of rapid social change? By which criteria are we to appreciate them? What are the views of professional lawyers, as well as those of different political opinions: conservatives, liberals, and 'left-wingers'? To clarify the unsolved character of this question, and the growing divorce between positive law and the notion of justice in post-Soviet Russia, the author demonstrates the competitive character and variability of strategies for the juridical construction of reality regarding such key parameters as property relations, national identity, state and the political establishment. He presents his own vision of the rational combination of the legitimacy, legality and efficiency of juridical decisions in order to overcome the conflict of law and justice, legality and efficiency, and political reason and the social ideal.
There is proved that because the Institute of householding is holder of private property it forms the entire system of property relations. It is proved that through the implementation of the interests of the owner household determines all the parameters of reproduction in the national economy, forcing producers through the market mechanism to best serve the interests of consumers.
Utilising sources that range from 16th century parish registers to the 21st century supermarket loyalty card, this collection examines the history and development of identification documents and surveillance techniques over the past 500 years. Combining the knowledge of several experts from a variety of disciplines, this volume successfully demonstrates how identification and registration can enable and empower a population, particularly if the interests of the state and population coincide. It also reveals the weakness of states or corporations when dealing with issues such as popular resistance and fraud, despite great leaps forward in the scientific methods of identifying individuals. This important book offers a vital contribution to the literature on a variety of topical subject areas such as biometric identification, immigration control and personal data use, as such it is of interest to students and scholars of civil and human rights amongst other disciplines.
An article offers a survey of the state of art in the field of property analysis in modern economic theory. Central place is devoted to the approach of new institutional economic theory which contributed to the revival of interest in property issues among mainstream economists. Marxist economics, Neo-Austrian Economics, Traditional Institutionalism and Property Economics are regarded as alternatives
The paper studies a problem of optimal insurer’s choice of a risk-sharing policy in a dynamic risk model, so-called Cramer-Lundberg process, over infinite time interval. Additional constraints are imposed on residual risks of insureds: on mean value or with probability one. An optimal control problem of minimizing a functional of the form of variation coefficient is solved. We show that: in the first case the optimum is achieved at stop loss insurance policies, in the second case the optimal insurance is a combination of stop loss and deductible policies. It is proved that the obtained results can be easily applied to problems with other optimization criteria: maximization of long-run utility and minimization of probability of a deviation from mean trajectory.