Conditional Probabilities and van Lambalgen’s Theorem Revisited
The definition of conditional probability in the case of continuous distributions (for almost all conditions) was an important step in the development of mathematical theory of probabilities. Can we define this notion in algorithmic probability theory for individual random conditions? Can we define randomness with respect to the conditional probability distributions? Can van Lambalgen’s theorem (relating randomness of a pair and its elements) be generalized to conditional probabilities? We discuss the developments in this direction. We present almost no new results trying to put known results into perspective and explain their proofs in a more intuitive way. We assume that the reader is familiar with basic notions of measure theory and algorithmic randomness (see, e.g., Shen et al. 2013 or Shen 2015 for a short introduction).